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The responses of Pseudomonas putida KT2442 to various forms of nutrient starvation and stress conditions were examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Carbon deprivation resulted in a temporal expression of two classes of starvation-induced proteins: one class was transiently expressed during the initial phase of starvation, and the second class was expressed throughout the entire starvation period. Proteins of the second class could be further subdivided into proteins induced specifically under conditions of carbon starvation, proteins also induced by conditions of stress created by elevated temperature and osmolarity, and finally proteins that were also induced by conditions of nitrogen as well as phosphate starvation. Addition of glucose to a carbon-starved culture led to initiation of a recovery phase. During this phase, repression of starvation-induced proteins as well as induction of a new class of transiently expressed proteins, referred to as maturation proteins, took place.