The 14 childhood obesity prevention topic areas are described in . During the 3-year study period, 123 (17%) of the 717 introduced bills were adopted, and 71 (53%) of the 134 introduced resolutions were adopted. From 2003 through 2005, there was an increase in the annual number of bills introduced (199 to 339) and adopted (40 to 55); however, the proportion adopted decreased from 20% to 16% (data not shown). Similarly, the annual number of resolutions introduced from 2003 through 2005 increased (40 to 55) and the number adopted remained steady (25 to 23), resulting in a decrease in the proportion adopted from 62% to 42% (data not shown).
Description of Health Policy Tracking Service (HPTS) Legislative Topic Areas on Childhood Obesity Prevention
The likelihood of introduction and adoption varied by topic area (). The topic areas with the greatest number of introduced bills and resolutions were school nutrition standards and vending machines (n = 238); physical education and physical activity (n = 191); and studies, councils, or task forces (n = 110). Community-related topic areas of walking and biking paths (37%), farmers' markets (36%), and statewide initiatives (30%) had the greatest proportion of bills adopted, followed by model school policies (29%) and safe routes to school (28%). School nutrition standards and vending machines had the lowest proportion of bills adopted (13%), possibly because of the large number of bills and resolutions introduced (i.e., average of nearly five bills or resolutions introduced per state during the 3-year period). None of the bills related to snack and soda taxes or restaurant menu and product labeling were adopted.
Introduceda and Adoptedb Legislation on Childhood Obesity Prevention, by Topic Area, United States, 2003–2005
The number of bills and resolutions introduced and adopted and the number of topic areas covered are provided by state (). The number of bills introduced ranged from 0 (Wyoming) to 51 (New York) with a median of 11. The number of bills adopted ranged from 0 (12 states) to 10 (California and Illinois) with a median of 2, and the proportion adopted ranged from 0% to 75% (Colorado). The number of resolutions introduced ranged from 0 (18 states) to 23 (Hawaii) with a median of 1. The number of resolutions adopted ranged from 0 (22 states) to 12 (California) with a median of 1, and the proportion adopted ranged from 0% to 100%. The number of topic areas addressed through introduced legislation (bills and resolutions combined) was highest for Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, and Texas (median = 8). The states with the highest number of topic areas adopted were California, Illinois, Louisiana, and New York (median = 3).
Introduceda and Adoptedb Legislation on Childhood Obesity Prevention, by State, United States, 2003–2005
No statistical association between adult obesity prevalence and introduced legislation was observed. However, some general geographic patterns were observed (). Slightly more than half of states (n = 28) showed concordance between obesity prevalence and amount of introduced legislation (when both variables were dichotomized as either low or high). Of the 14 states with below-average obesity prevalence and low legislative activity, 7 were in the mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming). Ten of the 14 states with above-average obesity prevalence and high legislative activity were in the south central or south Atlantic regions (Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, and West Virginia). In contrast, 7 of the 12 nonconcordant states with above-average obesity prevalence and low legislative activity were in the midwest region (Iowa, Indiana, Kansas, North Dakota, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wisconsin), whereas the 10 states with below-average obesity prevalence and high legislative activity were spread throughout the Pacific west (California, Hawaii, and Washington), mountain (New Mexico), midwest (Illinois and Minnesota), and northeast (Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, and Rhode Island) regions.
Number of bills and resolutions introduced and number of topic areas covered by introduced legislation, 2003–2005, and prevalence of adult obesity, 2004, United States.
Bills and Resolution Introduced, 2003–2005
|No. Bills and Resolutions Introduced||No. States|
Topic Areas Covered by Introduced Legislation, 2003–2005
|No. Topic Areas Covered||No. States|
Adult Obesity Prevalence, 2004
|Percent Obese||No. States|