We are grateful to participating volunteers; research staff; subject recruiters; Claude Gronfier, David W. Rimmer for collecting part of the data; and Joseph M. Ronda for technical support, J. Woodland Hastings for comments.
A translation of the abstract into Dutch is available as Alternative Language Abstract S1
Dr. Czeisler has received consulting fees from or served as a paid member of scientific advisory boards for: Actelion, Inc.; Avera Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Cephalon, Inc.; Coca-Cola Co; Fedex Kinko's; Hypnion, Inc.; Morgan Stanley; Sleep Multimedia, Inc.; Sleep Research Society (for which Dr.Czeisler served as president); Respironics, Inc.; Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Vanda Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Warburg-Pincus. Dr. Czeisler owns an equity interest in Hypnion, Inc., Lifetrac, Inc. and Vanda Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Dr. Czeisler has received lecture fees from the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education; Alfresa; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Program Directors; American Physiological Society; Association of University Anesthesiologists; Beth-Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Brown Medical School/Rhode Island Hospital; Cephalon, Inc.; Dalhousie University; Duke University Medical Center; Harvard University; Institute of Sleep Health Promotion (NPO) ; London Deanery; Osaka University School of Medicine; Partners HealthCare, Inc.; Sanofi-Aventis, Inc.; Takeda; Tanabe Seiyaku Co., Ltd.; Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO); University of Michigan; University of Pennsylvania; University of Pittsburgh; University of Tsukuba; University of Virginia Medical School; University of Wisconsin Medical School. Dr. Czeisler holds a number of process patents in the field of sleep/circadian rhythms (e.g., photic resetting of the human circadian pacemaker), all of which are assigned to the Brigham and Women's Hospital. Dr. Czeisler has also received research prizes with monetary awards from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine; American Clinical and Climatological Association; Association for Patient-Oriented Research; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and National Sleep Foundation; clinical trial research contracts from Cephalon, Inc., Merck, and Pfizer, Inc.; an investigator-initiated research grant from Cephalon, Inc.; and his research laboratory at the Brigham and Women's Hospital has received unrestricted research and education funds from Cephalon, Inc., Philips Lighting, ResMed, and the Brigham and Women's Hospital. Dr. Czeisler is the incumbent of an endowed professorship provided to Harvard University by Cephalon, Inc. The Harvard Medical School Division of Sleep Medicine (HMS/DSM), which Dr. Czeisler directs, has received unrestricted research and educational gifts and endowment funds from: Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cephalon, Inc., George H. Kidder, Esq., Gerald McGinnis, GlaxoSmithKline, Herbert Lee, Hypnion, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Jordan's Furniture, Merck, Peter C. Farrell, Ph.D., Pfizer, ResMed, Respironics, Sanofi-Aventis, Inc., Sealy, Inc., Sepracor, Inc., Simmons, Sleep Health Centers LLC, Spring Aire, Takeda Pharmaceuticals and Tempur-Pedic. The HMS/DSM has received gifts from many organizations and individuals through contributions to an annual fundraiser. Aside from affiliated faculty and staff, they include: Aetna US Healthcare, Alertness Solutions, Inc., American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Axon Sleep Research Laboratories, Inc, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Department of Medicine, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Sue and Walter Cahners, Catalyst Group, Cephalon, Inc., Clarus Ventures, Comfortaire Corporation, Committee for Interns and Residents, Farrell Family Foundation, Sumner and Esther Feldberg, Sandra Gilmore, M.D., Jordan L. Golding, Carla J. Kidd, George H. Kidder, Esq., Elliot D. Kieff, GlaxoSmithKline, Gosule, Butkus & Jesson, LLP, Hypnion, Inc., Innovative Brands Goup, Nature's Rest, Jordan's Furniture, King Koil Sleep Products, King Koil, Division of Blue Bell Mattress, Land and Sky, Merck Research Laboratories, Micki and Herbert Lee, MPM Capital, Megan and Robert O'Block, Harold Picken, M.D. & Christine Hayes, M.D., Diane and Henry Ripley, Howard Stevenson, Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc., Nicholas Galakatos, Ph.D., Orphan Medical/Jazz Pharmaceuticals/Dr. William Haughton, Stephen J. and Roberta L. Paris, Park Place Corporation, Pfizer Global Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer Healthcare Division, Pfizer, Inc, Pfizer/Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc., Nancy J. Phillips, Purdue Pharma L. P., Karen Ramsey & Giles Troughton, Renee Rapaporte, ResMed, Inc., Respironics, Inc., Ray Sanchez, M.D., Sanofi-Aventis, Inc., Sanofi-Synthelabo, Sealy Mattress Company, Sealy, Inc., Sepracor, Inc., Simmons Co., Sleep Health Centers LLC, Sleep Health Centers LLC, Spring Air Mattress Co., Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America, Tempur-Pedic Medical Division, Total Sleep Holdings, Fred Turek, Ph.D., Frank and Lona Valadez, Eve Van Cauter, Ph.D., Vanda Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cheryl and Jerry Weinstein, Howard L. Wolk, and Zeno Group. The HMS/DSM Sleep and Health Education Program has received Educational Grant funding from Cephalon, Inc., Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America, Sanofi-Aventis, Inc. and Sepracor, Inc. Dr. Czeisler is past President of the Sleep Research Society Foundation, which has received gifts from the Sleep Research Society and many individuals and commercial organizations through an annual benefit dinner. Since 1985, Dr. Czeisler has served as an expert witness on various legal cases related to sleep and/or circadian rhythms. Dr. Czeisler has never served as an expert witness for a commercial research sponsor. Dr. Wright has received consulting fees, speaker fees, and clinical research grants from Cephalon, Inc; received consulting fees, investigator-initiated research grant, and educational grants from Takeda, Inc; received consulting fees from Novartis, Inc; served as equity paid member of a scientific advisory board for Axon Sleep Research Laboratories, Inc.