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To test the hypothesis that some subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), especially subtype E, are more likely to infect mature Langerhans cells (mLC), we titrated a panel of 26 primary HIV-1 isolates of subtypes A through F on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and mLC. The majority of HIV-1 isolates from heterosexually infected patients did not show a preferred tropism for mLC compared to homosexually transmitted HIV-1 isolates. Only 6 of 26 isolates, 2 from patients infected by homosexual contact and 4 from patients infected by heterosexual contact, showed a higher infectivity for mLC than for PBMC. Both syncytium-inducing and non-syncytium-inducing isolates were able to infect mLC which express mRNA for the chemokine receptors CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4.