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Over the past three decades, we have made great strides in the treatment of most, but not all, brain tumors. Dramatic advances have occurred in diagnostic imaging, neurosurgery, neuroanesthesia, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy for CNS tumors. Unfortunately, our progress has not yet met our expectations. Because of the infiltrative nature of most primary brain tumors, neurosurgery can never be expected to be curative for the majority of gliomas. Because infiltrative tumors interdigitate with normal brain cells and are not highly sensitive to irradiation, one cannot expect radiotherapy to be curative without serious damage to normal brain cells. The hope for a cure, then, rests with chemotherapy. Those who administer chemotherapy to patients with CNS tumors fully expect that, in time, long-term survival and, ultimately, the cure will become an everyday reality. To achieve that reality, however, new treatment concepts and drugs are needed.