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Genetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from cases of mother-to-infant transmission were analyzed in an effort to provide insights into the viral selection that may occur during transmission, as well as the timing and source of transmitted viruses. HIV-1 env genes obtained from seven mothers and their perinatally infected infants in Sweden were studied. Five envelope sequence clades (A to E) were found to be represented. We used a heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA) to assess the genetic relatedness between early viral isolates from the infants and serial maternal virus populations taken during pregnancy and at delivery. HTA findings were used to select for DNA sequence analysis maternal virus populations that were either closely or more distantly related to the infant virus. In each case, nucleotide sequence analysis confirmed the genetic relationships inferred by the HTA. Only maternal peripheral blood was sampled, and large sets of maternal specimens throughout pregnancy were generally not available. However, no consistent correlation was found to support the hypothesis that infant viruses should match blood-derived maternal virus genotypes found early in pregnancy if infants were found to be infected at birth or, conversely, that infant viruses should match blood-derived maternal virus genotypes found at delivery if infants were found to be infected only some time later.