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BMJ. 1992 June 6; 304(6840): 1491–1494.
PMCID: PMC1882212

Statistical methods for assessing observer variability in clinical measures.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • COCHRANE AL, GARLAND LH. Observer error in the interpretation of chest films; an international investigation. Lancet. 1952 Sep 13;2(6733):505–509. [PubMed]
  • SCHILLING RS, HUGHES JP, DINGWALL-FORDYCE I. Disagreement between observers in an epidemiological study of respiratory disease. Br Med J. 1955 Jan 8;1(4905):65–68. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thompson WD, Walter SD. A reappraisal of the kappa coefficient. J Clin Epidemiol. 1988;41(10):949–958. [PubMed]
  • Feinstein AR, Cicchetti DV. High agreement but low kappa: I. The problems of two paradoxes. J Clin Epidemiol. 1990;43(6):543–549. [PubMed]
  • Maclure M, Willett WC. Misinterpretation and misuse of the kappa statistic. Am J Epidemiol. 1987 Aug;126(2):161–169. [PubMed]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet. 1986 Feb 8;1(8476):307–310. [PubMed]

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