shows the prevalence of health practices and statuses at age 24 for the total sample and by adolescent heavy episodic drinking trajectory group. Overall, the heavy episodic drinking trajectory groups differed significantly on seat belt use, safe driving and overweight/obesity. Note that high-risk waist size, hypertension and illness in the past year were more prevalent among chronic heavy drinkers than in the other groups.
Prevalence of health practices and statuses at age 24 by adolescent heavy episodic drinking trajectories
shows that chronic heavy drinkers had the most negative health profile of the four groups at age 24, with elevated risk for overweight and obesity, high-risk waist size, hypertension and illness. They also engaged less in safe health behaviors. In contrast, nonheavy drinkers exhibited a more positive pattern of health behaviors and statuses. Escalators and late onsetters generally fell between the chronic heavy drinkers and nonheavy drinkers. Escalators were the least likely to use seat belts and to engage in safe driving practices and showed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity. Late onsetters also were less likely to participate in safe driving behavior and had a higher occurrence of illness in the past year.
and show the results from the logistic regression analyses for the three health practices and the four health status outcomes, respectively. We estimated two models for each outcome. Model 1 comprised the heavy episodic drinking trajectory groups and the adolescent control variables. In Model 2, we added age-24 heavy episodic drinking frequency to test whether the more proximal measure of young adult heavy drinking mediates the influence of adolescent drinking patterns. Because heavy episodic drinking tends to co-occur with smoking, we also estimated a model that included age-24 smoking (during the past month) as an additional covariate. We found that smoking does not act as a mediator of the association between adolescent heavy drinking and young adult health; nor does its inclusion affect any of the other coefficients in the model. Thus, we excluded agc-24 smoking from the analysis presented here.
Logistic regression of health practices at age 24 on adolescent heavy episodic drinking (odds ratios)
Logistic regression of health statuses at age 24 on adolescent heavy episodic drinking (odds ratios)
shows that safe driving was the only health practice measured here that had a significant relationship with adolescent heavy episodic drinking independent of young adult heavy episodic drinking and the other control variables. Consistent with the bivariate findings presented in , the multiple regression results in show that late onsetters had a significantly lower odds ratio (OR = 0.65) of practicing safe driving than nonheavy drinkers, but they had odds similar to those of chronic heavy drinkers (analysis not shown). None of the other groups were different from each other in their driving practices. Adolescent heavy episodic drinking did not have a significant independent association with seal belt use and physical activity at age 24 in this sample. Frequent heavy episodic drinking at age 24, however, decreased the contemporaneous likelihood of using a seat belt and practicing safe driving (Model 2).
shows that young adults who were chronic heavy drinkers during adolescence were more than three and a half times as likely to he overweight or obese (OR = 3.71) and to have hypertension (OR = 3.60) at age 24, compared with nonheavy drinkers, even when we controlled for age-24 frequency of heavy episodic drinking, poverty, gender, ethnicity and other drug use. Their odds of overweight or obesity (OR = 3.25) and hypertension (OR = 4.01) also were significantly greater than those of the late onsetters (analysis not shown). High-risk waist size at age 24 was not associated with adolescent or young adult heavy episodic drinking. Young adults who began drinking heavily late in adolescence (late onsetters) had significantly greater odds of having been ill in the past year, compared with nonheavy drinkers (OR = 1.54). This relationship was reduced to marginal significance when we controlled for age-24 frequency of heavy episodic drinking. The likelihood of late onsetters having been ill was similar to that of chronic heavy drinkers (OR = 1.22; analysis not shown).
and also show that poverty, ethnicity and other drug use during adolescence were not consistently associated with health outcomes at age 24, although African Americans were at significantly greater risk than European Americans for overweight/obesity and high-risk waist size. Asian Americans in this sample were significantly more likely to practice safe driving but significantly less likely to be physically active than European Americans. These differences by ethnicity are found even after controlling for poverty, gender, adolescent other drug use and current heavy drinking.
In contrast, gender was associated with all the health practices and statuses in young adulthood measured here, independent of alcohol and other substance use, ethnicity and socioeconomic background. When compared with young women, young men in this sample were less likely to engage in safe health behaviors, such as seat belt use and safe driving, but were more likely to be physically active. Young men in the sample were more likely than young women to be overweight or obese and to have hypertension at age 24, but they were less likely than young women to have been ill in the past year.