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Appl Microbiol. 1974 September; 28(3): 456–459.
PMCID: PMC186742

Ice Nucleation Induced by Pseudomonas syringae1


Broth cultures of suspensions of Pseudomonas syringae isolated from decaying alder leaves (Alnus tenuifolia) were found to freeze at very warm (-1.8 to -3.8 C) temperatures. The initiation of freezing appears associated with the intact cell and not with extracellular material. Chemical treatments and physical destruction of the cell destroy activity. Bacteria must be in concentrations of approximately 106/ml before freezing at warm temperatures occurs.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • HEAD RB. Steroids as ice nucleators. Nature. 1961 Sep 9;191:1058–1059. [PubMed]
  • Lelliott RA, Billing E, Hayward AC. A determinative scheme for the fluorescent plant pathogenic pseudomonads. J Appl Bacteriol. 1966 Dec;29(3):470–489. [PubMed]

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