PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of aacPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalAAC ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1984 April; 25(4): 422–426.
PMCID: PMC185544

Effect of rifampin and bacitracin on nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

Abstract

Anterior nares cultures from 664 hospital personnel identified 165 (24.8%) as carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. Persistent carriers (17.8%) were identified and randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: rifampin (600 mg once a day for 5 days), bacitracin ointment (topically applied three times a day for 10 days), combined rifampin and bacitracin, and control (no treatment). Bacitracin ointment was ineffective in eliminating S. aureus from the anterior nares and had a postreatment carrier rate equal to the control rate. Rifampin therapy caused a highly significant reduction (79%) in carriage; however, combined therapy was not as effective as treatment with rifampin alone. Of 132 strains of staphylococci isolated before and after treatment, all were susceptible to less than 0.016 micrograms of rifampin per ml. This study demonstrates that rifampin may be an effective antistaphylococcal antibiotic and could be used to control the carrier state in high-risk situations.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1010K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Boyce JM, Landry M, Deetz TR, DuPont HL. Epidemiologic studies of an outbreak of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infect Control. 1981 Mar-Apr;2(2):110–116. [PubMed]
  • Bryan CS, Wilson RS, Meade P, Sill LG. Topical antibiotic ointments for staphylococcal nasal carriers: survey of current practices and comparison of bacitracin and vancomycin ointments. Infect Control. 1980 May-Jun;1(3):153–156. [PubMed]
  • Craven DE, Reed C, Kollisch N, DeMaria A, Lichtenberg D, Shen K, McCabe WR. A large outbreak of infections caused by a strain of Staphylococcus aureus resistant of oxacillin and aminoglycosides. Am J Med. 1981 Jul;71(1):53–58. [PubMed]
  • Crossley K, Landesman B, Zaske D. An outbreak of infections caused by strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin and aminoglycosides. II. Epidemiologic studies. J Infect Dis. 1979 Mar;139(3):280–287. [PubMed]
  • Crossley K, Loesch D, Landesman B, Mead K, Chern M, Strate R. An outbreak of infections caused by strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin and aminoglycosides. I. Clinical studies. J Infect Dis. 1979 Mar;139(3):273–279. [PubMed]
  • Czarlinsky DK, Hall RT, Barnes WG, Jenkins DC, Rhodes PG, Harris DJ. Staphylococcal colonization in a newborn nursery, 1971--1976. Am J Epidemiol. 1979 Feb;109(2):218–225. [PubMed]
  • EHRENKRANZ NJ. PERSON-TO-PERSON TRANSMISSION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS. QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF NASAL CARRIERS SPREADING INFECTION. N Engl J Med. 1964 Jul 30;271:225–230. [PubMed]
  • Graham DR, Correa-Villasenor A, Anderson RL, Vollman JH, Baine WB. Epidemic neonatal gentamicin-methicillin--resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection associated with nonspecific topical use of gentamicin. J Pediatr. 1980 Dec;97(6):972–978. [PubMed]
  • Grieble HG, Krause SL, Pappas SA, DiCostanzo MB. The prevalence of high-level methicillin resistance in multiply resistant hospital staphylococci. Medicine (Baltimore) 1981 Jan;60(1):62–69. [PubMed]
  • Hemming VG, Overall JC, Jr, Britt MR. Nosocomial infections in a newborn intensive-care unit. Results of forty-one months of surveillance. N Engl J Med. 1976 Jun 10;294(24):1310–1316. [PubMed]
  • Hoeprich PD. Prediction of antimeningococcic chemoprophylactic efficacy. J Infect Dis. 1971 Feb;123(2):125–133. [PubMed]
  • Klimek JJ, Marsik FJ, Bartlett RC, Weir B, Shea P, Quintiliani R. Clinical, epidemiologic and bacteriologic observations of an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at a large community hospital. Am J Med. 1976 Sep;61(3):340–345. [PubMed]
  • Kunin CM, Brandt D, Wood H. Bacteriologic studies of rifampin, a new semisynthetic antibiotic. J Infect Dis. 1969 Feb;119(2):132–137. [PubMed]
  • Locksley RM, Cohen ML, Quinn TC, Tompkins LS, Coyle MB, Kirihara JM, Counts GW. Multiply antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: introduction, transmission, and evolution of nosocomial infection. Ann Intern Med. 1982 Sep;97(3):317–324. [PubMed]
  • Mandell GL, Moorman DR. Treatment of experimental staphylococcal infections: effect of rifampin alone and in combination on development of rifampin resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Apr;17(4):658–662. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • O'Toole RD, Drew WL, Dahlgren BJ, Beaty HN. An outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Observations in hospital and nursing home. JAMA. 1970 Jul 13;213(2):257–263. [PubMed]
  • Peacock JE, Jr, Marsik FJ, Wenzel RP. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: introduction and spread within a hospital. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Oct;93(4):526–532. [PubMed]
  • ROUNTREE PH, HESELTINE M, RHEUBEN J, SHEARMAN RP. Control of staphylococcal infection of the newborn by the treatment of nasal carriers in the staff. Med J Aust. 1956 Mar 31;43(13):528–532. [PubMed]
  • Sande MA, Mandell GL. Effect of rifampin on nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1975 Mar;7(3):294–297. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saroglou G, Cromer M, Bisno AL. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: interstate spread of nosocomial infections with emergence of gentamicin-methicillin resistant strains. Infect Control. 1980 Mar-Apr;1(2):81–89. [PubMed]
  • Sewell CM, Clarridge J, Lacke C, Weinman EJ, Young EJ. Staphylococcal nasal carriage and subsequent infection in peritoneal dialysis patients. JAMA. 1982 Sep 24;248(12):1493–1495. [PubMed]
  • Shanson DC, Kensit JC, Duke R. Outbreak of hospital infection with a strain of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to gentamicin and methicillin. Lancet. 1976 Dec 18;2(7999):1347–1348. [PubMed]
  • Vale MA, Connolly A, Epstein AM, Vale MR. Bacitracin-induced anaphylaxis. Arch Dermatol. 1978 May;114(5):800–800. [PubMed]
  • Ward TT, Winn RE, Hartstein AI, Sewell DL. Observations relating to an inter-hospital outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: role of antimicrobial therapy in infection control. Infect Control. 1981 Nov-Dec;2(6):453–459. [PubMed]
  • WEINSTEIN HJ. The relation between the nasal-staphylococcal-carrier state and the incidence of postoperative complications. N Engl J Med. 1959 Jun 25;260(26):1303–1308. [PubMed]
  • Wheat LJ, Kohler RB, White AL, White A. Effect of rifampin on nasal carriers of coagulase-positive staphylococci. J Infect Dis. 1981 Aug;144(2):177–177. [PubMed]
  • Williams JD, Waltho CA, Ayliffe GA, Lowbury EJ. Trials of five antibacterial creams in the control of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet. 1967 Aug 19;2(7512):390–392. [PubMed]
  • WILLIAMS RE. Healthy carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: its prevalence and importance. Bacteriol Rev. 1963 Mar;27:56–71. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wilson SZ, Martin RR, Putman M. In vivo effects of josamycin, erythromycin, and placebo therapy on nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1977 Mar;11(3):407–410. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wilson SZ, Martin RR, Putman M, Greenberg SB, Wallace RJ, Jr, Jemsek JG. Quantitative nasal cultures from carriers of Staphylococcus aureus: effects of oral therapy with erythromycin, rosamicin, and placebo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1979 Mar;15(3):379–383. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yourassowsky E, van der Linden MP, Lismont MJ, Crokaert F. Combination of minocycline and rifampicin against methicillin- and gentamicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Pathol. 1981 May;34(5):559–563. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zak C, Hawiger J, Jeljaszewicz J. Sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to 30 antibiotics. Chemotherapy. 1969;14(1):7–21. [PubMed]

Articles from Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)