Effect of TNF-α ab and IL-1ra treatments on infarction after 1 hr tMCAO and 24 hr reperfusion. The dose and route of TNF-α ab (Lavine et al., 1998) and IL-1ra (Loddick and Rothwell, 1996) were determined from previous studies. A) saline; B) non-immune (normal) goat IgG; C) TNF-α antibody 0.36 mg/kg i.v. in saline; D) IL-1ra, 20 μg/4 μL i.c.v in saline significantly reduced the infarction by 52% ± 5 and 60% ± 4 respectively. E) Bar graph: infarct volumes, mm3. *P<0.05 compared to non-immune goat IgG or saline respectively (n=4 per group).