The mean hip-pain score recorded by the clinical investigator in the pooled gold implantation group was significantly reduced (p < 0.01) from day 0 to 24 months (Table ). In the PC group an increased mean hip-pain score was detected in the same period, although this was not significant (p = 0.28). The change in mean hip pain score was significantly larger in the pooled gold implantation group compared to the PC group (p = 0.012).
Mean hip-pain score and mean lameness score (95% CI) at Day 0 and 24 months in the pooled gold implantation group evaluated by the clinical investigator.
The mean lameness score observed by the clinical investigator was reduced from day 0 to 24 months in the pooled gold bead implantation group (p = 0.09) and numerically increased in the PC group (p = 0.84) in the same period (Table ). The change in mean lameness score between the groups was not significant. Thirty-four of the 66 dogs in the pooled gold bead implantation group were initially recorded as lame, with a total lameness score of 127. After 24 months, the number had decreased to eighteen dogs with a total lameness score of 76. In the PC group, five of seven dogs were initially recorded as lame, with a total lameness score of 18; after 24 months two dogs were still lame, but had increased the total lameness score to 21.
The changes reported by the owners more or less mimicked those recorded by the clinical assessor. The hip-pain score in the pooled gold implantation group, reported by the owners, was significantly reduced (p < 0.01) during the 24 months period (Table ). A reduction was also detected in the PC group, but this was not found significant (p = 0.06). The reduction in the pooled gold implantation group was larger then in the PC group, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.13).
Owners' assessments of hip pain and dysfunction using a 10 cm visual analog scale from 0 – 10 where 0 = no pain or dysfunction and 10 = extreme pain or dysfunction. The results are expressed as mean values with a 95% confidence interval.
The degree of dysfunction, reported by the owners, was significantly reduced (p < 0.01) in the pooled gold implantation group during the study (Table ). No change was detected in the PC group (p = 0.74), and the reduction in dysfunction in the pooled gold implantation group was found to be significantly larger than in PC group (p < 0.01).
Table shows the changes (improvement or deterioration) in the dog's behaviour from hip-pain, according to the owner's impression, for the different treatment groups. A significant improvement in the signs of hip-pain (p < 0.01) was found in the pooled gold bead implantation group, compared to the PC group in the period from day 0 to 24 months. The prevalence of dogs in the pooled GG and PG groups that demonstrated improvements after 24 months of treatment was 81.8% (CI 70.4 – 90.2) (Table ). The improvement was found to be less in the PG-group compared to the GG-group (p = 0.05). However, the PG-group showed a significant better improvement compared to the PC group (p = 0.03).
Number of dogs treated with gold implantation and a control group that showed changes in the signs of hip dysplasia, according to their owners' general impressions of their dog's behaviour in its daily life after 24 months of treatment.
The scores for overall hip-pain improvement or deterioration according to the owner's impression of their dog's behaviour after six months and 24 month for the GG group is given in Table . Owner-reports indicated that 85.3% (CI 68.9 – 95.1) of the dogs with gold bead implantation from Day 0 showed improvements in the overall hip-pain score after six months of treatment. After 24 months, 94.1% (CI 80.3 – 99.3) of the dogs with gold bead implantation showed improvements, but the increase was not found statistically significant. It can be seen from the Table that 15 dogs (the bold numbers) were unchanged in their hip-pain scores when the scores at six and 24 months were compared. Nine dogs showed a further improvement from six to 24 months, eight dogs had reduced improvements and two dogs showed deterioration.
Table 5 Number of dogs in a cross table with different scores for the overall hip pain improvement or deterioration according to the owners' general impression of their dog's behaviour in its daily life after six and 24 months in the originally gold implantation (more ...)
In Table the owners' assessments of their dogs' quality of life after 24 months is shown. The prevalence of "very good" quality of life in the pooled gold bead implantation groups was 63.6% (50.9 – 75.1), while the corresponding value for the GG group was 70.6% (52.5–84.9) and for the PC group 71.4% (29.0–96.3).
Owners assessments of their dog's quality of life after 24 months in the pooled (GG+PG) group treated with gold bead implantation and in the control group.
When asked their opinion of the pain-relieving effect of gold bead implantation, 100% (CI 89.7 – 100.0) of owners of dogs in the GG group reported a good or very good effect, while the corresponding value for the PG group was 78.1% (CI 60.0 – 90.7). Small or no effect was reported by 21.9% (CI 9.3 – 40.0). Pooling the two gold implantation groups produced a value of 89.4% (CI 79.4 – 95.6) of owners that reported good or very good effect.
At the termination of the study, or at time of death, the owners were asked if they had observed a positive pain-relieving effect of the gold bead implantation, and if so, for how long. Continuous pain-relieving effect of gold bead implantation was reported in 79.7% (CI 68.3 – 88.4) of the dogs. If a dog went with gold implantation for 20 months for example, and showed a positive effect for 18 of these months, the recorded duration of effect was 90%. The mean duration of effect for gold-implanted dogs was 90.7% (CI 87.5 – 94.1; range 17.5% to 100.0%).
Use of NSAIDS was recorded in the period between six and 24 months. Three of 34 dogs (CI 1.9 – 23.7) in the GG group reported use of NSAIDs periodically or daily after appearance of pain signs, whereof one dog was withdrawn. Seven of 32 dogs (CI 9.3 – 40.0) in the PG group reported use of NSAIDs periodically or daily after appearance of pain, whereof two dogs were withdrawn. Two of seven dogs in the PC group reported use of NSAIDs periodically or daily. No significant difference was detected between these groups.