Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of bmjThe BMJ
BMJ. 1989 January 28; 298(6668): 218–221.
PMCID: PMC1835517

Changes in sexual behaviour and the fall in incidence of HIV infection among homosexual men.


To investigate the epidemiology and normal course of infection with HIV the prevalence and incidence of the infection were studied among two cohorts of homosexual men in Amsterdam in 1980-7. The cumulative incidence of infection increased from a weighted 2.2% in 1980 to 39.0% in 1987. The estimated yearly incidence of HIV was 3.0% in 1981, rose to 8.8% in 1984, and fell gradually to 0% in 1987. During the study the sexual behaviour of the cohorts was examined. The number of men with whom anopenetrative intercourse was practised fell from a mean of 10.6 to 1.4 for those positive for HIV antibody, whereas the number with whom anoreceptive intercourse was practised fell from a mean of 3.7 to 0.5 for those negative for the antibody. In addition, there was a reduction in the number of cases of hepatitis B and syphilis among men in general. The decline in infection with HIV was assumed to be linked to changes in sexual behaviour. Such changes practised early in the course of the epidemic probably had a strong effect on the number of cases of AIDS among homosexual men in Amsterdam.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (853K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Prummel MF, ten Berge RJ, Barrowclough H, Cejka V. Kaposi-sarcoom en dodelijke opportunistische infecties bij een homoseksuele man met een deficiënt immuunapparaat. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1983 May 7;127(19):820–824. [PubMed]
  • van Griensven GJ, Tielman RA, Goudsmit J, van der Noordaa J, de Wolf F, de Vroome EM, Coutinho RA. Risk factors and prevalence of HIV antibodies in homosexual men in the Netherlands. Am J Epidemiol. 1987 Jun;125(6):1048–1057. [PubMed]
  • van Griensven GJ, de Vroome EM, Tielman RA, Goudsmit J, van der Noordaa J, de Wolf F, Coutinho RA. Impact of HIV antibody testing on changes in sexual behavior among homosexual men in The Netherlands. Am J Public Health. 1988 Dec;78(12):1575–1577. [PubMed]
  • de Wolf F, Lange JM, Goudsmit J, Cload P, de Gans J, Schellekens PT, Coutinho RA, Fiddian AP, van der Noordaa J. Effect of zidovudine on serum human immunodeficiency virus antigen levels in symptom-free subjects. Lancet. 1988 Feb 20;1(8582):373–376. [PubMed]
  • Lange JM, Coutinho RA, Krone WJ, Verdonck LF, Danner SA, van der Noordaa J, Goudsmit J. Distinct IgG recognition patterns during progression of subclinical and clinical infection with lymphadenopathy associated virus/human T lymphotropic virus. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986 Jan 25;292(6515):228–230. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coutinho RA, Lelie N, Albrecht-Van Lent P, Reerink-Brongers EE, Stoutjesdijk L, Dees P, Nivard J, Huisman J, Reesink HW. Efficacy of a heat inactivated hepatitis B vaccine in male homosexuals: outcome of a placebo controlled double blind trial. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983 Apr 23;286(6374):1305–1308. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Trail RR. Charles V. Chapin and the Public Health Movement. Med Hist. 1963 Jul;7(3):286–286. [PMC free article]
  • Coutinho RA, Krone WJ, Smit L, Albrecht-van Lent P, van der Noordaa J, Schaesberg W, Goudsmit J. Introduction of lymphadenopathy associated virus or human T lymphotropic virus (LAV/HTLV-III) into the male homosexual community in Amsterdam. Genitourin Med. 1986 Feb;62(1):38–43. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stevens CE, Taylor PE, Zang EA, Morrison JM, Harley EJ, Rodriguez de Cordoba S, Bacino C, Ting RC, Bodner AJ, Sarngadharan MG, et al. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City. JAMA. 1986 Apr 25;255(16):2167–2172. [PubMed]
  • Winkelstein W, Jr, Samuel M, Padian NS, Wiley JA, Lang W, Anderson RE, Levy JA. The San Francisco Men's Health Study: III. Reduction in human immunodeficiency virus transmission among homosexual/bisexual men, 1982-86. Am J Public Health. 1987 Jun;77(6):685–689. [PubMed]
  • McKusick L, Horstman W, Coates TJ. AIDS and sexual behavior reported by gay men in San Francisco. Am J Public Health. 1985 May;75(5):493–496. [PubMed]
  • Carne CA, Weller IV, Johnson AM, Loveday C, Pearce F, Hawkins A, Smith A, Williams P, Tedder RS, Adler MW. Prevalence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, gonorrhoea rates, and changed sexual behaviour in homosexual men in London. Lancet. 1987 Mar 21;1(8534):656–658. [PubMed]

Articles from The BMJ are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group