1. Edgar B, Doherty J, Meert H. Access to housing: homelessness and vulnerability in Europe. Bristol: Policy Press; 2002.
2. Bramley G, Doogan K, Leather P, et al., editors. Homelessness and the London housing market. Bristol: School for Advanced Urban Studies; 1988.
3. Connelly J, Crown J. Homelessness and ill health. Report of a Working party of the Royal College of Physicians. London: Royal College of Physicians; 1994.
4. Fitzpatrick S, Kemp P, Klinker S. Single homelessness: an overview of research in Britain. Bristol: Policy Press; 2000.
5. Wessel T, Porksen N, Zechert C. Homeless patients in the psychiatric clinic. Results of a 12-month study of the living conditions of psychiatric patients in an urban public health clinic. Psychiatr Prax. 1997;24(4):167–171. [PubMed]
6. Fitzpatrick S. Pathways to independence: the experience of young homeless people. Edinburgh: Scottish Homes; 1999.
7. Jones G. Young People in and out of the housing market: research project. University of Edinburgh: Centre for Educational Sociology; 1999.
8. Reid P, Klee H. Young homeless people and service provision. Health Soc Care Community. 1999;7(1):17–24. [PubMed]
9. Randall G, Brown S. Prevention is better than cure: new solutions to street homelessness from Crisis. London: Crisis; 1999.
10. Nordentoft M, Wandall-Holm N. 10 year follow up study of mortality among users of hostels for homeless people in Copenhagen. BMJ. 2003;327(7406):81. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 11. Sleegers J. Similarities and differences in homelessness in Amsterdam and New York City. Psychiatr Serv. 2000;51(1):100–104. [PubMed] 15. Brucker G, Nguyen DT, Lebas J. Access to health care for destitute persons at Public Assistance Hospitals in Paris. Bull Acad Natl Med. 1997;181(8):1681–1697. [PubMed]
16. Bines W. The health of single homeless people. York: Centre for Housing Policy, University of York; 1994.
17. Wright N, Smeeth L, Heath I. Moving beyond single and dual diagnosis in general practice: many patients have multiple morbidities, and their needs have to be addressed. BMJ. 2003;326(7388):512–514. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 18. Newton JR, Geddes JR, Bailey S, et al. Mental health problems of the Edinburgh ‘roofless’ Br J Psychiatry. 1994;165(4):537–540. [PubMed] 19. North CS, Smith EM. A comparison of homeless men and women: different populations, different needs. Community Ment Health J. 1993;29(5):423–431. [PubMed]
20. Griffiths S. Addressing the health needs of rough sleepers: a paper to the Homelessness Directorate. London: Stationery Office; 2002.
21. Wright N. Homelessness: a primary care response. London: Royal College of General Practitioners; 2002.
22. Reinking DP, Wolf JR, Kroon H. High prevalence of mental disorders and addiction problems among the homeless in Utrecht. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2001;145(24):1161–1166. [PubMed]
23. Fountain J, Howes S. National Addiction Centre. Home and dry? Homelessness and substance use. London: Crisis; 2002.
24. Lempens A, van de MD, Barendregt C. Homeless drug users in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: profile, way of life, and the need for assistance. Subst Use Misuse. 2003;38(3–6):339–375. [PubMed] 25. Shaffer HJ, Freed CR, Healea D. Gambling disorders among homeless persons with substance use disorders seeking treatment at a community center. Psychiatr Serv. 2002;53(9):1112–1117. [PubMed] 26. Heffron WA, Skipper BJ, Lambert L. Health and lifestyle issues as risk factors for homelessness. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1997;10(1):6–12. [PubMed] 27. Segal SP, Gomory T, Silverman CJ. Health status of homeless and marginally housed users of mental health self-help agencies. Health Soc Work. 1998;23(1):45–52. [PubMed] 28. Holohan TW. Health and homelessness in Dublin. Ir Med J. 2000;93(2):41–43. [PubMed] 29. Raoult D, Foucault C, Brouqui P. Infections in the homeless. Lancet Infect Dis. 2001;1(2):77–84. [PubMed] 30. Barnes PF, Yang Z, Preston-Martin S, et al. Patterns of tuberculosis transmission in Central Los Angeles. JAMA. 1997;278(14):1159–1163. [PubMed]
31. Ishorst-Witte F, Heinemann A, Puschel K. Morbidity and cause of death in homeless persons. Archiv Kriminol. 2001;208(5–6):129–138.
32. Edgar B, Doherty J, Mina-Coull A. Women and homelessness in Europe. Bristol: Policy Press; 2001.
33. Crane M. The associations between mental illness and homelessness among older people: an exploratory study. Ageing Ment Health. 1998;2(3):171–180.
34. Kruks G. Gay and lesbian homeless/street youth: special issues and concerns. J Adolesc Health. 1991;12(7):515–518. [PubMed]
35. O'Connor W, Molloy D. ‘Hidden in plain sight’: homelessness amongst lesbian and gay youth. London: National Centre for Social Research; 2001.
36. Trabert G. Health status and medical care accessibility of single, homeless persons. Gesundheitswesen. 1997;59(6):378–386. [PubMed] 37. Crane M, Warnes AM. Primary health care services for single homeless people: defects and opportunities. Fam Pract. 2001;18(3):272–276. [PubMed] 38. Doering TJ, Hermes E, Konitzer M, et al. Health situation of homeless in a health care home in Hannover. Gesundheitswesen. 2002;64(6):375–382. [PubMed] 39. Lester H, Wright N, Heath I., RGCP Health Inequalities Standing Group Developments in the provision of primary health care for homeless people. Br J Gen Pract. 2002;52(475):91–92. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
40. Wright NM, Campbell TL, Tompkins CN. Comparison of conventional and accelerated hepatitis B immunisation schedules for homeless drug users. Comm Disease Public Health. 2002;5(4):324–326.
41. Goldberg D, Cameron S, McMenamin J. Hepatitis C virus antibody prevalence among injecting drug users in Glasgow has fallen but remains high. Comm Disease Public Health. 1998;1(2):95–97.
42. Heimer R, Kaplan EH, Khoshnood K, et al. Needle exchange decreases the prevalence of HIV-1 proviral DNA in returned syringes in New Haven, Connecticut. Am J Med. 1993;95(2):214–220. [PubMed]
43. Moss AR, Hahn JA. Syringe exchange and risk of infection with hepatitis B and C viruses: invited commentary: needle exchange-no help for hepatitis? Am J Epidemiology. 1999;149(3):214–216.
44. Broadhead RS, Kerr TH, Grund JPC, Altice FL. Safer injection facilities in North America: their place in public policy and health initiatives. J Drug Issues. 2002;32(1):329–355.
45. Hagan H, Thiede H, Weiss NS, et al. Sharing of drug preparation equipment as a risk factor for hepatitis C. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(1):42–46. [PubMed] 47. Moatti JP, Vlahov D, Feroni I, et al. Multiple access to sterile syringes for injection drug users: vending machines, needle exchange programs and legal pharmacy sales in Marseille, France. Eur Addict Res. 2001;7(1):40–45. [PubMed] 48. Power R, Hunter G. Developing a strategy for community-based health promotion targeting homeless populations. Health Educ Res. 2001;16(5):593–602. [PubMed]
49. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. Reducing drug related deaths: a report by The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. London: The Stationery Office; 2000.
50. Strang J, McCambridge J, Best D, et al. Loss of tolerance and overdose mortality after inpatient opiate detoxification: follow up study. BMJ. 2003;326(7396):959–960. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
51. Oldham NS, Wright N. A UK policy on ‘take home naloxone’ for opiate users — strategy or stalemate? Drugs: Education Prevention & Policy. 2003;10(2):105–119.
52. Meisler N, Blankertz L, Santos AB, McKay C. Impact of assertive community treatment on homeless persons with co-occurring severe psychiatric and substance use disorders. Community Ment Health J. 1997;33(2):113–122. [PubMed] 53. Conrad KJ, Hultman CI, Pope AR, et al. Case managed residential care for homeless addicted veterans. Results of a true experiment. Med Care. 1998;36(1):40–53. [PubMed] 54. De Leon G, Sacks S, Staines G, McKendrick K. Modified therapeutic community for homeless mentally ill chemical abusers: treatment outcomes. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2000;26(3):461–480. [PubMed] 55. Nuttbrock LA, Rahav M, Rivera JJ, et al. Outcomes of homeless mentally ill chemical abusers in community residences and a therapeutic community. Psychiatr Serv. 1998;49(1):68–76. [PubMed] 56. Milby JB, Schumacher JE, Raczynski JM, et al. Sufficient conditions for effective treatment of substance abusing homeless persons. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1996;43(1–2):39–47. [PubMed]
57. Department of Health, The Scottish Office Department of Health, Welsh Office, Department of Health and Social Services NI. Drug misuse and dependence-guidelines on clinical management. London: The Stationery Office; 1999.
58. The National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse. Models of care for treatment of adult drug misusers. London: The National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse; 2002.
59. Mattick RP, Kimber J, Breen C, Davoli M. Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadone maintenance for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2) CD002207.
60. Ward J, Mattick R, Hall W. Methadone maintenance treatment and other opioid replacement therapies. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Press; 1997.
61. The National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse. Injectable heroin (and injectable methadone) potential roles in drug treatment. Full Guidance Report. London: The National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse; 2003.
63. Jacob J, Rottman J, Stoever H. Entstehung und Praxis eines Gesundheitsraumangebotes für Drogenkonsmierende. Abschlußbericht der einjährigen Evaluation des ‘drop-in Fixpunkt,’ Hannover. Oldenburg: Bibliotheks und Informationssystem der Universitat Oldenburg; 1999.
64. Medically Supervised Injecting Centre Evaluation Committee. Final report on the evaluation report of the Sydney medically supervised injecting centre. Sydney: MSIC Evaluation Committee; 2003.
65. Robinson BB, Bockting WO, Rosser BR, et al. The sexual health model: application of a sexological approach to HIV prevention. Health Education Research. 2002;17(1):43–57. [PubMed]
66. Integrative Drogenhilfe. Jahresbericht 1996 (Annual Report 1996) Frankfurt: Integrative Drogenhilfe; 1997.
67. Hunt N. Safer injecting rooms: an overview of the evidence with consideration of some implementation issues for the UK. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation; 2003.
68. Wright NMJ, Tompkins CNE. Supervised injecting centres. BMJ. 2004;328:100–102. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
69. Kral AH, Lorvick J, Edin BR. Sex and drug related risk among populations of younger and older injecting drug users in adjacent neighbourhoods in San Francisco. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 2000;24(2):162–167.
70. Van Den Hoek A. STD control in drug users and street youth. Genitourin Med. 1997;73(4):240–244. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 71. Nyamathi A, Flaskerud J, Keenan C, Leake B. Effectiveness of a specialized vs. traditional AIDS education program attended by homeless and drug-addicted women alone or with supportive persons. AIDS Educ Prev. 1998;10(5):433–446. [PubMed] 72. Nyamathi AM, Leake B, Flaskerud J, et al. Outcomes of specialized and traditional AIDS counseling programs for impoverished women of color. Res Nurs Health. 1993;16(1):11–21. [PubMed] 73. Nyamathi AM, Stein JA. Assessing the impact of HIV risk reduction counseling in impoverished African American women: a structural equations approach. AIDS Educ Prev. 1997;9(3):253–273. [PubMed]
74. Stein JA, Nyamathi A, Kington R. Change in AIDS risk behaviors among impoverished minority women after a community-based cognitive-behavioral outreach program. Am J Comm Psychol. 1997;25(6):519–533.
75. Susser E, Valencia E, Berkman A, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus sexual risk reduction in homeless men with mental illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55(3):266–272. [PubMed] 76. Gelberg L, Leake B, Lu MC, et al. Chronically homeless women's perceived deterrents to contraception. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2002;34(6):278–285. [PubMed] 77. Dufeu P, Podschus J, Schmidt LG. Alcohol dependence in homeless men. Incidence, development and determinants. Nervenarzt. 1996;67(11):930–934. [PubMed] 78. Fichter MM, Quadflieg N. Alcoholism in homeless men in the mid-nineties: results from the Bavarian public health study on homelessness. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999;249(1):34–44. [PubMed] 79. Fichter MM, Quadflieg N. Course of alcoholism in homeless men in Munich, Germany: results from a prospective longitudinal study based on a representative sample. Subst Use Misuse. 2003;38(3-6):395–427. [PubMed] 80. Nyamathi AM, Stein JA, Dixon E, Longshore D, Galaif E. Predicting positive attitudes about quitting drug and alcohol use among homeless women. Psychol Addict Behav. 2003;17(1):32–41. [PubMed] 81. Coughey K, Feighan K, Cheney R, Klein G. Retention in an aftercare program for recovering women. Subst Use Misuse. 1998;33(4):917–933. [PubMed] 82. Lapham SC, Hall M, Skipper BJ. Homelessness and substance use among alcohol abusers following participation in project H&ART. J Addict Dis. 1995;14(4):41–55. [PubMed] 83. Stahler GJ, Shipley TF, Jr, Bartelt D, et al. Evaluating alternative treatments for homeless substance-abusing men: outcomes and predictors of success. J Addict Dis. 1995;14(4):151–167. [PubMed] 84. North CS, Pollio DE, Smith EM, Spitznagel EL. Correlates of early onset and chronicity of homelessness in a large urban homeless population. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1998;186(7):393–400. [PubMed] 85. Thomsen RL, Balslov KD, Benjaminsen SE, Petersen P. [Homeless persons residing in shelters in the county of Funen I. Psychosocial characteristics and need of treatment. Ugeskr Laeger. 2000;162(9):1205–1210. [PubMed] 86. Scott J. Homelessness and mental illness. Br J Psychiatry. 1993;162:314–324. [PubMed] 87. Palmstierna T, Gadd K, Norman C, Svensson J. Drug addicts with severe mental disorders can be helped by programs using moderate means. Good results when psychiatric, social and drug abuse services cooperate. Lakartidningen. 2000;97(18):2205–2206. [PubMed] 88. Lehman AF, Dixon LB, Kernan E, et al. A randomized trial of assertive community treatment for homeless persons with severe mental illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997;54(11):1038–1043. [PubMed] 89. Lam JA, Rosenheck R. Street outreach for homeless persons with serious mental illness: is it effective? Med Care. 1999;37(9):894–907. [PubMed] 90. Buhrich N, Teesson M. Impact of a psychiatric outreach service for homeless persons with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv. 1996;47(6):644–646. [PubMed] 91. Salize HJ, Dillmann-Lange C, Stern G, et al. Alcoholism and somatic comorbidity among homeless people in Mannheim, Germany. Addiction. 2002;97(12):1593–1600. [PubMed] 92. Darke S, Ross J, Zador D, Sunjic S. Heroin-related deaths in New South Wales, Australia, 1992-1996. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2000;60(2):141–150. [PubMed] 93. O'Driscoll PT, McGough J, Hagan H, et al. Predictors of accidental fatal drug overdose among a cohort of injection drug users. Am J Pub Health. 2001;91(6):984–987. [PubMed] 94. Meisels IS, Loke J. The pulmonary effects of free-base cocaine: a review. Cleve Clin J Med. 1993;60(4):325–329. [PubMed] 95. Tashkin DP. Airway effects of marijuana, cocaine, and other inhaled illicit agents. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2001;7(2):43–61. [PubMed] 96. Mirzayan R, Hanks SE, Weaver FA. Cocaine-induced thrombosis of common iliac and popliteal arteries. Ann Vasc Surg. 1998;12(5):476–481. [PubMed]
97. Webber J, Kline RA, Lucas CE. Aortic thrombosis associated with cocaine use: report of two cases. Annals Vasc Surg. 1999;13(3):302–304.
98. CDC. Tetanus surveillance — United States, 1998-2000. Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep MMWR. 2003;52(Suppl 3):1–12.
99. Chin J, Archer MS. Control of communicable diseases manual: an official report of the American Public Health Association. 17th edn. Washington: American Public Health Association; 2000.
100. Rushdy AA, White JM, Ramsay ME, Crowcroft NS. Tetanus in England and Wales, 1984-2000. Epidemiol Infect. 2003;130(1):71–77. [PubMed] 101. Kern G, Frisch-Niggemeyer W, Wewalka G, Bruns C. Hepatitis A outbreak in a shelter for the homeless in Vienna. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1986;98(14):457–461. [PubMed] 102. Queiroz DA, Cardoso DD, Martelli CM, et al. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A virus infection in street children of Goiania-Goias. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 1995;28(3):199–203. [PubMed] 103. Monsuez JJ, Mathieu D, Arnoult F, Passeron J. Cutaneous diphtheria in a homeless man. Lancet. 1995;346(8975):649–650. [PubMed] 104. Arfi C, Dehen L, Benassaia E, et al. Dermatologic consultation in a precarious situation: a prospective medical and social study at the Hopital Saint-Louis in Paris. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1999;126(10):682–686. [PubMed] 105. Moy JA, Sanchez MR. The cutaneous manifestations of violence and poverty. Arch Dermatol. 1992;128(6):829–839. [PubMed]