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Can Vet J. 1979 April; 20(4): 89–94.
PMCID: PMC1789526

Bovine Granular Vulvitis Associated with Ureaplasma Infection


A granular vulvitis syndrome associated with ureaplasma infection was first recognized in Ontario dairy herds in 1972.

The acute form of the disease was characterized by a purulent vulvar discharge, an inflamed hyperemic vulvar mucosa and varying degrees of granularity. In the chronic form, there was an absence of a purulent discharge and a gradual decline in the severity of the hyperemia and granularity. Epithelial inclusion cysts were observed in the vulvar epithelium of approximately 10% of affected cows.

A seasonal variation in the incidence of the disease was observed. Herd morbidities during the summer months reached a low of 37% and increased to 75% during the winter months with constant housing.

When widespread in herds, the acute form of the disease had a significant effect on fertility. In four herds examined, first service conceptions dropped on average by 27%.

The chronic form of the disease had a less detrimental effect on fertility with first service conceptions being reduced on average by 13%.

Intrauterine infusions of a tetracycline 24 hours postbreeding were found to be of value in improving conception rates in acutely affected herds.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Afshar A, Stuart P, Huck RA. Granular vulvovaginitis (nodular venereal disease) of cattle associated with Mycoplasma bovigenitalium. Vet Rec. 1966 Apr 9;78(15):512–518. [PubMed]
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  • Howard CJ, Gourlay RN, Brownlie J. The virulence of T-mycoplasmas, isolated from various animal species, assayed by intramammary inoculation in cattle. J Hyg (Lond) 1973 Mar;71(1):163–170. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
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  • Panangala VS, Fish NA, Barnum DA. Microflora of the cervico-vaginal mucus of repeat breeder cows. Can Vet J. 1978 Apr;19(4):83–89. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ruhnke HL, Doig PA, MacKay AL, Gagnon A, Kierstead M. Isolation of Ureaplasma from bovine granular vulvitis. Can J Comp Med. 1978 Apr;42(2):151–155. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • TROUTMAN EC. Granular vaginitis as a cause of infertility in dairy cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1954 Mar;124(924):184–185. [PubMed]
  • Van Kruiningen HJ, Davis FH, Pieper NW, Daniels WH. Concomitant granular vulvitis, palate lesions, and respiratory illness in Connecticut dairy cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1968 Dec 15;153(12):1583–1587. [PubMed]

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