OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that HIV-positive women on protease inhibitors (PIs) would be more likely to have an elevated glucola test result than those not on PIs. METHODS: We reviewed our database of all HIV-positive pregnant women seen at our hospital. Serum glucose was measured 1 hour following a 50-g glucola load, at approximately 26-28 weeks of gestation. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test, and the Mann-Whitney rank sum test. RESULTS: Forty-one HIV-infected pregnant women with glucola testing were seen between January 1, 1997 and March 1, 2000. Fourteen patients were on PIs at the time of glucola. One patient in each group had an abnormal glucola test result (glucose >/= 140 mg/dl); both had normal 3-hour glucose tolerance tests. The glucola test results were similar between the PI-exposed and unexposed, with a mean difference of 5.8 mg/dl (95% confidence interval 9.2-20.8 mg/dl). Two neonates (both exposed to PI) had hypoglycemia (glucose < 40 mg/dl). CONCLUSIONS: The use of PIs does not significantly increase the risk of an elevated glucola result, nor is the mean glucola result increased in the women on PIs. The finding of hypoglycemia in neonates exposed to PIs merits further investigation.