1. Marmot MG, Smith GD, Stansfeld S, et al. Health inequalities among British civil servants: The Whitehall II study. Lancet. 1991 Jun 8;337(8754):1387–93. [PubMed] 2. Marmot MG, Shipley MJ, Rose G. Inequalities in death—specific explanations of a general pattern? Lancet. 1984 May 5;1(8384):1003–6. [PubMed] 3. Feinstein JS. The relationship between socioeconomic status and health: Areview of the literature. Milbank Q. 1993;71(2):279–322. [PubMed] 4. House JS, Kessler RC, Herzog AR. Age, socioeconomic status, and health. Milbank Q. 1990;68(3):383–411. [PubMed]
5. Kitagawa EM, Hauser PM. Differential mortality in the United States: A study of socioeconomic epidemiology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1973.
6. Antonovsky A. Social class, life expectancy and overall mortality. Milbank Mem Fund Q. 1967 Apr;45(2):31–73. [PubMed] 7. Markides KS, Coreil J. The health of Hispanics in the southwestern United States: An epidemiologic paradox. Public Health Rep. 1986 May–Jun;101(3):253–65. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 8. Scribner R. Paradox as paradigm—The health outcomes of Mexican Americans. Am J Public Health. 1996 Mar;86(3):303–5. [PubMed]
9. Guzmán B. The Hispanic population: Census 2000 brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; 2001.
10. Day JC. U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports. Report No. P25–1130. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1996. Population projections of the United States by age, sex, races and Hispanic origin: 1995 to 2050.
11. Smith JP, Edmonston B. The face of the U.S. population in 2050. In: Smith JP, Edmonston B, editors. The new Americans. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1997.
12. U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports. The Hispanic population of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; 1997.
13. Stevens G. Immigration, emigration, language acquisition, and the English language proficiency of immigrants to the United States. In: Edmonston B, Passel JS, editors. Immigration and ethnicity. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press; 1994.
14. Friedman-Jimenez G, Ortiz JS. Latino Health and the work environment. In: Molina CW, Aguirre-Molina M, editors. Latino health in the U.S.: A growing challenge. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1994.
15. Language: Diversity and assimilation. In: Lopez DE, editor; Waldinger R, Bozorgmehr M, editors. Ethnic Los Angeles. New York: Russel Sage Foundation; 1996.
16. Landrine H, Klonoff EA. Cultural change, tobacco and alcohol use among U.S. ethnic minorities: An operant model of acculturation. In: Marin G, editor. Conference on acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement and applied research. San Francisco: University of San Francisco; 1998.
17. Perez-Stable EJ, Marin BV, Marin G. A comprehensive smoking program for the San Francisco Bay area Latino community: Programa Latino Para Dejar de Fumar. Am J Health Promot. 1993 Jul–Aug;7(6):430–42. 475. [PubMed] 18. Perez-Stable EJ, Marin G, Marin BV. Behavioral risk factors: A comparison of Latinos and non-Latino whites in San Francisco. Am J Public Health. 1994 Jun;84(6):971–76. [PubMed]
19. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco use among U.S. racial/ethnic minority groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A report of the U.S. surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 1998.
20. Loria CM, Bush TL, Carroll MD, et al. Macronutrient intakes among adult Hispanics: A comparison of Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and mainland Puerto Ricans. Am J Public Health. 1995 May;85(5):684–89. [PubMed] 21. McDowell MA, Briefel RR, Alaimo K, et al. Energy and macronutrient intakes of persons ages 2 months and over in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase 1, 1988–91. Adv Data. 1994 Oct 24;(255):1–24. [PubMed] 22. Marshall JA, Lopez TK, Shetterly SM, et al. Association of education level with atherogenic diets in a rural biethnic population. Am J Prev Med. 1995 Sep–Oct;11(5):294–300. [PubMed] 23. Guendelman S, Abrams B. Dietary intake among Mexican-American women: Generational differences and a comparison with white non-Hispanic women. Am J Public Health. 1995 Jan;85(1):20–25. [PubMed] 24. Marks G, Garcia M, Solis JM. Health risk behaviors of Hispanics in the United States: Findings from HHANES, 1982–84. Am J Public Health. 1990 Dec;80(Suppl):20–26. [PubMed]
25. Tucker KL, Falcon LM. Nutrition among Hispanic elders in the United States. In: Markides KS, Miranda MR, editors. Minorities, health and aging. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 1997.
26. Romero-Gwynn E, Gwynn D, Grivette L, et al. Dietary acculturation among Latinos of Mexican descent. Nutr Today. 1993 July–Aug;28(4):5–12.
27. Elder JP, Castro FG, de Moor C, et al. Differences in cancer-risk-related behaviors in Latino and Anglo adults. Prev Med. 1991 Nov;20(6):751–63. [PubMed] 28. Otero-Sabogal R, Sabogal F, Perez-Stable EJ, et al. Dietary practices, alcohol consumption, and smoking behavior: Ethnic, sex, and acculturation differences. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1995;(18):73–82. [PubMed]
29. Aguirre-Molina M, Caetano R. Alcohol use and alcohol-related issues. In: Molina CW, Aguirre-Molina M, editors. Latino health in the U.S.: A growing challenge. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1994.
30. Caetano R. Drinking, ethnic identity, and educational status among Mexican Americans. Berkeley, CA: Pacific Medical Research Institute, Alcohol Research Group; 1988.
31. Caetano R. Responding to alcohol-related problems among Hispanics. Contemp Drug Problems. 1988 fall;15(3):335–63.
32. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. The evidence report. Bethesda, MD: National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; 1998. (NIH Pub. No. (NIH) 98–4083.) [PubMed]
33. Pamuk E, Makuc D, Heck K, et al. Socioeconomic status and health chartbook. Health, United States, 1998. Washington, DC: National Center for Health Statistics; 1998.
34. Najjir MF, Kuczmarski RJ. Anthropometric data and the prevalence of overweight for Hispanics: 1982–1984. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1989. (DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 89–1689.)
35. Stern MP, Pugh JA, Gaskill SP, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior related to obesity and dieting in Mexican Americans and Anglos: The San Antonio Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1982 Jun;115(6):917–28. [PubMed]
36. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activity and health: Areport of the surgeon general. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1996.
37. Burchfiel CM, Hamman RF, Marshall JA, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and impaired glucose tolerance: The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Jan;131(1):57–70. [PubMed] 38. Estrada AL, Trevino FM, Ray LA. Health care utilization barriers among Mexican Americans: Evidence from HHANES 1982–84. Am J Public Health. 1990 Dec;80(Suppl):27–31. [PubMed]
39. Schur CL, White LA, Berk ML. Health care use by Hispanic adults: The role of financial vs. nonfinancial determinants [abstract] AHSR FHSR. Annu Meet Abstr Book. 1995;12:103.
40. Hoffman C, Pohl M. Health insurance coverage in America: 1999 data update. The Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured; 2000.
41. Giachello AL. Issues of access and use. In: Molina CW, Aguirre-Molina M, editors. Latino health in the U.S.: A growing challenge. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1994.
42. Thamer M, Richard C, Casebeer AW, et al. Health insurance coverage among foreign-born U.S. residents: The impact of race, ethnicity, and length of residence. Am J Public Health. 1997 Jan;87(1):96–102. [PubMed]
43. Bennefield R. Census Brief: Children without Health Insurance. Report No. CENBR/98–1. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce; 1998.
44. Halfon N, Wood DL, Valdez RB, et al. Medicaid enrollment and health services access by Latino children in inner-city Los Angeles. JAMA. 1997 Feb 26;277(8):636–41. [PubMed] 45. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Interagency task force on children’s health insurance outreach: A report to the president, 1998. Retrieved on August 1, 2001, from http://cms.hhs.gov/schip/chiprpt.pdf.
46. Angel RJ, Angel JL. Health services use and long term care among Hispanics. In: Markides KS, Miranda MR, editors. Minorities, aging, and health. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 1997.
47. Angel JL, Angel RJ, McClellan JL, et al. Nativity, declining health, and preferences in living arrangements among elderly Mexican Americans: Implications for long-term care. Gerontologist. 1996 Aug;36(4):464–73. [PubMed] 48. Valdez RB, Giachello Á, Rodriguez-Trias H, et al. Improving access to health care in Latino communities. Public Health Rep. 1993 Sep–Oct;108(5):534–39. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 49. Komaromy M, Grumbach K, Drake M, et al. The role of black and Hispanic physicians in providing health care for underserved populations. N Engl J Med. 1996 May 16;334(20):1305–10. [PubMed] 50. Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, et al. Use and effectiveness of interpreters in an emergency department. JAMA. 1996 Mar 13;275(10):783–88. [PubMed]
51. Lapham SJ, Montgomery P, Niner D. We the American foreign born. Report No. WE-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce; 1993.
52. Morales LS, Cunningham WE, Brown JA, et al. Are Latinos less satisfied with communication by health care providers? A study of 48 medical groups. J Gen Intern Med. 1999 Jul;14(7):409–17. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 53. Perez-Stable EJ, Naapoles-Springer A, Miramontes JM. The effects of ethnicity and language on medical outcomes of patients with hypertension or diabetes. Med Care. 1997 Dec;35(12):1212–19. [PubMed]
54. Molina CW, Zambrana E, Aguirre-Molina M. The influence of culture, class and environment on health care. In: Molina CW, Aguirre-Molina M, editors. Latino health: A growing challenge. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1994.
55. Gregory D. Transcultural medicine: Treating Hispanic patients. Behav Med. 1978 Feb;3(1):22–29.
56. Kominski GF, Pourat N. Differences in utilization of ambulatory care among Asian Americans. Abstr Book Assoc Health Serv Res. 1997;14:71–72.
57. Trevino FM, Moss AJ. Health Indicators for Hispanic, black and white Americans. Washington, DC: National Center for Health Statistics; 1984. (NCHS Rep. No. [PHS] 84–1576.) [PubMed] 58. Guendelman S, Wagner TH. Health services utilization among Latinos and white non-Latinos: Results from a national survey. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2000 May;11(2):179–94. [PubMed] 59. Schur CL, Bernstein AB, Berk ML. The importance of distinguishing Hispanic sub-populations in the use of medical care. Med Care. 1987 Jul;25(7):627–41. [PubMed] 60. Flores G, Bauchner H, Feinstein A, et al. The impact of ethnicity, family income, and paternal education on children’s health and use of health services. Am J Public Health. 1999 Jul;89(7):1066–71. [PubMed]
61. Anderson RN, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL. Report of final mortality statistics, 1995. Mon Vital Stat Rep. 1997;45(11 suppl 2)
62. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Selected social characteristics of all persons and Hispanic persons, by type of origin: March, 1996. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census; 1998.
63. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) National Health Interview Survey, 1994 [computer file]. ICPSR ver. Hyattsville, MD: DHHS, NCHS [producer], 1995. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Science Research [distributor]; 1996.
64. Hajat A, Lucas JB, Kington R. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital and Health Statistics/Advance Data. February 2000. Health outcomes among Hispanic subgroups: Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 1992–95. Report No. 310. [PubMed] 65. Fuentes-Afflick E, Lurie P. Low birth weight and Latino ethnicity. Examining the epidemiologic paradox. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997 Jul;151(7):665–74. [PubMed] 66. Liao Y, Cooper RS, Cao G, et al. Mortality patterns among adult Hispanics: Findings from the NHIS, 1986 to 1990. Am J Public Health. 1998 Feb;88(2):227–32. [PubMed] 67. Wei M, Valdez RA, Mitchell BD, et al. Migration status, socioeconomic status, and mortality rates in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites: The San Antonio Heart Study. Ann Epidemiol. 1996 Jul;6(4):307–13. [PubMed] 68. Stephen EH, Foote K, Hendershot GE, et al. Health of the foreign-born population: United States, 1989–90. Adv Data. 1994 Feb 14;(241):1–12. [PubMed]
69. Schoeni R, Heron M, Morales L. Disparities in health status among immigrant and native ethnic groups. RAND labor and population working paper. Santa Monica, CA: RAND; 2001.
70. Antonovsky A, Bernstein J. Social class and infant mortality. Soc Sci Med. 1977 May;11(8–9):453–70. [PubMed] 71. Feldman JJ, Makuc DM, Kleinman JC, et al. National trends in educational differentials in mortality. Am J Epidemiol. 1989 May;129(5):919–33. [PubMed] 72. Ries P. Educational differences in health status and health care. Vital Health Stat  1991 Sep;(179):1–66. [PubMed] 73. Guralnik JM, Land KC, Blazer D, et al. Educational status and active life expectancy among older blacks and whites. N Engl J Med. 1993 Jul 8;329(2):110–16. [PubMed] 74. Doornbos G, Kromhout D. Educational level and mortality in a 32-year follow-up study of 18-year-old men in the Netherlands. Int J Epidemiol. 1990 Jun;19(2):374–79. [PubMed] 75. Kunst AE, Mackenbach JP. The size of mortality differences associated with educational level in nine industrialized countries. Am J Public Health. 1994 Jun;84(6):932–37. [PubMed] 76. Slater CH, Lorimor RJ, Lairson DR. The independent contributions of socioeconomic status and health practices to health status. Prev Med. 1985 May;14(3):372–78. [PubMed] 77. Liu K, Cedres LB, Stamler J, et al. Relationship of education to major risk factors and death from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases and all causes: Findings of three Chicago epidemiologic studies. Circulation. 1982 Dec;66(6):1308–14. [PubMed] 78. Keil JE, Sutherland SE, Knapp RG, et al. Mortality rates and risk factors for coronary disease in black as compared with white men and women. N Engl J Med. 1993 Jul 8;329(2):73–78. [PubMed] 79. Seltzer CC, Jablon S. Army rank and subsequent mortality by cause: 23-year follow-up. Am J Epidemiol. 1977 Jun;105(6):559–66. [PubMed] 80. Rogot E, Sorlie PD, Johnson NJ. Life expectancy by employment status, income and education in the National Longitudinal Study. Public Health Rep. 1992 Jul–Aug;107(4):457–61. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 81. Cooper SP, Buffler PA, Cooper CJ. Health characteristics by occupation and industry of longest employment. Vital Health Stat  1989 Jun;(168):1–105. [PubMed] 82. Pearce NE, Davis PB, Smith AH, et al. Mortality and social class in New Zealand II: Male mortality by major disease groupings. N Z Med J. 1983 Sep 28;96(740):711–16. [PubMed] 83. Moser KA, Fox AJ, Jones DR. Unemployment and mortality in the OPCS Longitudinal Study. Lancet. 1984 Dec 8;2(8415):1324–29. [PubMed]
84. U.S. Office of Technology Assessment. Does health insurance make a difference? Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Technology Assessment; 1992. (OTA Pub. No. BP-H-99.)
85. Franks P, Clancy CM, Gold MR. Health insurance and mortality: Evidence from a national cohort. JAMA. 1993 Aug 11;270(6):737–41. [PubMed]
86. Williams DR, Collins C. U.S. socioeconomic and racial differences in health: Patterns and explanations. Ann Rev Sociol. 1995;21:349–86.
87. Haan M, Kaplan GA, Camacho T. Poverty and health: Prospective evidence from the Alameda County Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1987 Jun;125(6):989–98. [PubMed] 88. Newacheck PW, Butler LH, Harper AK, et al. Income and illness. Med Care. 1980 Dec;18(12):1165–76. [PubMed] 89. Lundberg O. Class and health: Comparing Britain and Sweden. Soc Sci Med. 1986;23(5):511–17. [PubMed]
90. Amick BC, Levine S, Tarlov AR, et al. Society and health. New York: Oxford University Press; 1995.
91. Barker DJ, Osmond C, Golding J, et al. Growth in utero, blood pressure in childhood and adult life, and mortality from cardiovascular disease. BMJ. 1989 Mar 4;298(6673):564–67. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 92. Seeman TE, Singer BH, Rowe JW, et al. Price of adaptation—Allostatic load and its health consequences. MacArthur studies of successful aging. Arch Intern Med. 1997 Oct 27;157(19):2259–68. [PubMed]
93. Wilkenson RG. Unhealthy societies: The afflictions of inequality. London: Routledge; 1996.
94. Poe GS, Powell-Griner E, McLaughlin JK, et al. Comparability of the death certificate and the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey. Vital Health Stat 2. 1993 Nov;(118):1–53. [PubMed] 95. Sorlie PD, Rogot E, Johnson NJ. Validity of demographic characteristics on the death certificate. Epidemiology. 1992 Mar;3(2):181–84. [PubMed] 96. Rosenberg HM, Maurer JD, Sorlie PD, et al. Quality of death rates by race and Hispanic origin: A summary of current research, 1999. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2. 1999 Sep;(128):1–13. [PubMed]
97. Rogers RG, Hummer RA, Nam CB, et al. Demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors affecting ethnic mortality by cause. Social Forces. 1996;74(4):1419–38.
98. Sorlie PD, Backlund E, Johnson NJ, et al. Mortality by Hispanic status in the United States. JAMA. 1993 Nov 24;270(20):2464–68. [PubMed] 99. Rosenwaike I. Mortality differentials among persons born in Cuba, Mexico, and Puerto Rico residing in the United States, 1979–81. Am J Public Health. 1987 May;77(5):603–6. [PubMed]
100. Ahmed B, Robinson JG. Estimates of emigration of the foreign-born population: 1980–1990. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census; 1994. (Pub. No. 9.)
101. Abraido-Lanza AF, Dohrenwend BP, Ng-Mak DS, et al. The Latino mortality paradox: A test of the “salmon bias” and healthy migrant hypotheses. Am J Public Health. 1999 Oct;89(10):1543–48. [PubMed] 102. Guendelman S, Gould JB, Hudes M, et al. Generational differences in perinatal health among the Mexican American population: findings from HHANES 1982–84. Am J Public Health. 1990 Dec;80(Suppl):61–65. [PubMed]