Intracranial haemorrhage accounts for 30–60 % of all stroke admissions into a hospital, with hypertension being the main risk factor. Presence of intraventricular haematoma is considered a poor prognostic factor due to the resultant obstruction to CSF and the mass effect following the presence of blood resulting in raised intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus. We report the results following endoscopic decompression of obstructive hydrocephalus and evacuation of haematoma in patients with hypertensive intraventricular haemorrhage.
During a two year period, 25 patients diagnosed as having an intraventricular haemorrhage with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to hypertension were included in this study. All patients underwent endoscopic evacuation of the haematoma under general anaesthesia. Post operative evaluation was done by CT scan and Glasgow outcome scale.
Of the 25 patients, thalamic haemorrhage was observed in 12 (48%) patients, while, 11 (44%) had a putaminal haematoma. Nine (36%) patients had a GCS of 8 or less pre-operatively. Resolution of hydrocephalus following endoscopic evacuation was observed in 24 (96%) patients. No complications directly related to the surgical technique were encountered in our study. At six months follow-up, a mortality rate of 6.3% and 55.5% was observed in patients with a pre-operative GCS of ≥ 9 and ≤ 8 respectively. Thirteen of the 16 (81.3%) patients with a pre-operative GCS ≥ 9 had good recovery.
Endoscopic technique offers encouraging results in relieving hydrocephalus in hypertensive intraventricular haemorrhage. Final outcome is better in patient with a pre-operative GCS of >9. Future improvements in instrumentation and surgical techniques, with careful case selection may help improve outcome in these patients.