Many studies have reported that polymorphisms of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene are associated with autoimmune disease. Here, we investigate the relationship between MBL gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in a Han-nationality population from the Hubei province of China. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to investigate polymorphisms of codons 54 and 57 in exon 1 of the MBL gene in 93 patients with JIA and 48 control children. Neither group showed codon 57 polymorphisms. There was no significant difference in the genotypic frequencies of codon 54 between patients with JIA and healthy controls (wild type, 71.0% versus 75.0%, respectively; heterozygous type, 25.8% versus 25.0%, respectively; and homozygous type, 3.2% versus 0.0%, respectively). In addition, no association was found between the subgroups of patients with JIA and control individuals. Our results provide no evidence for a relationship between MBL gene mutation and susceptibility to JIA.