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One hundred and sixty six children attending educationally subnormal/mild (ESN/M) schools were karyotyped as part of a project investigating the aetiology of mild mental retardation. Nine had significant chromosome abnormalities. Five of six children identified during the survey had no dysmorphic features--47,XXY (two), 48,XXYY, 46,XX 15q-, and 46,XX,t(X;19). One dysmorphic boy had a balanced translocation--46,XY,t(3;15). Three were already known--47,XX+21 (two) and 46,XY, 14q+. We suggest that routine karyotyping of children with mild mental retardation be considered.