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Heart. Aug 2004; 90(8): 927–934.
PMCID: PMC1768375
Dynamic changes of gene expression profiles during postnatal development of the heart in mice
H-W Chen,1* S-L Yu,2* W-J Chen,3 P-C Yang,2 C-T Chien,4 H-Y Chou,6 H-N Li,2 K Peck,7 C-H Huang,3 F-Y Lin,5 J J W Chen,8 and Y-T Lee2
1Department of Life Science, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
2Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
3Department of Emergency Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
4Departments of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
5Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
6Institute of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
7Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
8Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Molecular Biology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
*Sung-Liang Yu and Huei-Wen Chen contributed equally to this work.
Jeremy JW Chen and Yuan-Teh Lee contributed equally to this work and are joint corresponding authors.
Correspondence to:
Dr Yuan-Teh Lee
Internal Medicine (Cardiology), National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan; spart/at/
Accepted November 6, 2003.
Objective: To study postnatal cardiac differentiation in the mouse.
Hypothesis: There might be mechanisms or factors in cardiac differentiation that could be identified by systematic gene expression analysis during postnatal cardiac development.
Methods: Expression of 6144 genes was examined in mouse heart, from the newborn period (day 0), through day 7 and day 14 day, to adulthood, using the cDNA microarray approach. Northern blotting and immunohistochemical techniques were used to confirm the microarray results.
Results: Various cardiac development related genes involving the cell cycle (cyclin B1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and Ki67), growth factors (IGF-II, pleiotrophin (PTN), and midkine (MK)), and transcriptional regulation, cytoskeleton, and detoxification enzymes were identified by microarray analysis. Some of these genes were also confirmed by Northern blotting and immunohistochemistry of their RNA and protein content. In vivo treatment with PTN (20 ng/g) increased bromodeoxyuridine incorporation (by 2.24-fold) and PCNA expression (by 1.71-fold) during day 7 to day 14, indicating that PTN induces cell proliferation in mouse heart.
Conclusions: Global gene expression analysis in the whole heart may be useful in understanding the orchestrated process of postnatal development or terminal differentiation in the cardiac environment. These data are likely to be helpful in studying developmental anomalies of the heart in neonates.
Keywords: developmental biology, gene expression, growth factors, microarray, pleiotrophin
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