Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of tobcontTobacco ControlVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Tob Control. 2003 March; 12(1): 13–20.
PMCID: PMC1759095

Review of the quality of studies on the economic effects of smoke-free policies on the hospitality industry


Data sources: Researchers sought all studies produced before 31 August 2002. Articles published in scientific journals were located with Medline, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Current Contents, PsychInfo, Econlit, and Healthstar. Unpublished studies were located from tobacco company websites and through internet searches.

Study selection: 97 studies that made statements about economic impact were included. 93% of the studies located met the selection criteria as determined by consensus between multiple reviewers.

Data extraction: Findings and characteristics of studies (apart from funding source) were classified independently by two researchers. A third assessor blind to both the objective of the present study and to funding source also classified each study.

Data synthesis: In studies concluding a negative impact, the odds of using a subjective outcome measure was 4.0 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 9.6; p = 0.007) and the odds of not being peer reviewed was 20 times (95% CI 2.6 to 166.7; p = 0.004) that of studies concluding no such negative impact. All of the studies concluding a negative impact were supported by the tobacco industry. 94% of the tobacco industry supported studies concluded a negative economic impact compared to none of the non-industry supported studies.

Conclusion: All of the best designed studies report no impact or a positive impact of smoke-free restaurant and bar laws on sales or employment. Policymakers can act to protect workers and patrons from the toxins in secondhand smoke confident in rejecting industry claims that there will be an adverse economic impact.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (177K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Chapman S, Borland R, Scollo M, Brownson RC, Dominello A, Woodward S. The impact of smoke-free workplaces on declining cigarette consumption in Australia and the United States. Am J Public Health. 1999 Jul;89(7):1018–1023. [PubMed]
  • Fichtenberg Caroline M, Glantz Stanton A. Effect of smoke-free workplaces on smoking behaviour: systematic review. BMJ. 2002 Jul 27;325(7357):188–188. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Samuels B, Glantz SA. The politics of local tobacco control. JAMA. 1991 Oct 16;266(15):2110–2117. [PubMed]
  • Glantz SA, Charlesworth A. Tourism and hotel revenues before and after passage of smoke-free restaurant ordinances. JAMA. 1999 May 26;281(20):1911–1918. [PubMed]
  • Magzamen S, Glantz SA. The new battleground: California's experience with smoke-free bars. Am J Public Health. 2001 Feb;91(2):245–252. [PubMed]
  • Ritch WA, Begay ME. Strange bedfellows: the history of collaboration between the Massachusetts Restaurant Association and the tobacco industry. Am J Public Health. 2001 Apr;91(4):598–603. [PubMed]
  • Mangurian CV, Bero LA. Lessons learned from the tobacco industry's efforts to prevent the passage of a workplace smoking regulation. Am J Public Health. 2000 Dec;90(12):1926–1930. [PubMed]
  • Magzamen S, Charlesworth A, Glantz SA. Print media coverage of California's smokefree bar law. Tob Control. 2001 Jun;10(2):154–160. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Montini T, Bero LA. Policy makers' perspectives on tobacco control advocates' roles in regulation development. Tob Control. 2001 Sep;10(3):218–224. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schotland Marieka S, Bero Lisa A. Evaluating public commentary and scientific evidence submitted in the development of a risk assessment. Risk Anal. 2002 Feb;22(1):131–140. [PubMed]
  • Bero LA, Montini T, Bryan-Jones K, Mangurian C. Science in regulatory policy making: case studies in the development of workplace smoking restrictions. Tob Control. 2001 Dec;10(4):329–336. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Barnes DE, Bero LA. Scientific quality of original research articles on environmental tobacco smoke. Tob Control. 1997 Spring;6(1):19–26. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dyer C. Confidential tobacco documents enter public domain. BMJ. 1998 Apr 18;316(7139):1186–1186. [PubMed]
  • Malone RE, Balbach ED. Tobacco industry documents: treasure trove or quagmire? Tob Control. 2000 Sep;9(3):334–338. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bartosch WJ, Pope GC. The economic effect of smoke-free restaurant policies on restaurant business in Massachusetts. J Public Health Manag Pract. 1999 Jan;5(1):53–62. [PubMed]
  • Glantz SA, Smith LR. The effect of ordinances requiring smoke-free restaurants on restaurant sales. Am J Public Health. 1994 Jul;84(7):1081–1085. [PubMed]
  • Glantz SA. Effect of smokefree bar law on bar revenues in California. Tob Control. 2000 Mar;9(1):111–112. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Glantz SA, Smith LR. The effect of ordinances requiring smoke-free restaurants and bars on revenues: a follow-up. Am J Public Health. 1997 Oct;87(10):1687–1693. [PubMed]
  • Goldstein AO, Sobel RA. Environmental tobacco smoke regulations have not hurt restaurant sales in North Carolina. N C Med J. 1998 Sep-Oct;59(5):284–287. [PubMed]
  • Assessment of the impact of a 100% smoke-free ordinance on restaurant sales--West Lake Hills, Texas, 1992-1994. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1995 May 19;44(19):370–372. [PubMed]
  • Hyland A, Cummings KM. Restaurant employment before and after the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act. J Public Health Manag Pract. 1999 Jan;5(1):22–27. [PubMed]
  • Hyland A, Cummings KM, Nauenberg E. Analysis of taxable sales receipts: was New York City's Smoke-Free Air Act bad for restaurant business? J Public Health Manag Pract. 1999 Jan;5(1):14–21. [PubMed]
  • Hyland A, Vena C, Cummings KM, Lubin A. The effect of the clean air act of Erie County, New York on restaurant employment. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2000 Nov;6(6):76–85. [PubMed]
  • Hyland A, Tuk J. Restaurant employment boom in New York City. Tob Control. 2001 Jun;10(2):199–199. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sciacca JP, Ratliff MI. Prohibiting smoking in restaurants: effects on restaurant sales. Am J Health Promot. 1998 Jan-Feb;12(3):176–184. [PubMed]
  • Wakefield Melanie, Siahpush Mohammad, Scollo Michelle, Lal Anita, Hyland Andrew, McCaul Kieran, Miller Caroline. The effect of a smoke-free law on restaurant business in South Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2002 Aug;26(4):375–382. [PubMed]
  • Biener L, Fitzgerald G. Smoky bars and restaurants: who avoids them and why? J Public Health Manag Pract. 1999 Jan;5(1):74–78. [PubMed]
  • Biener L, Siegel M. Behavior intentions of the public after bans on smoking in restaurants and bars. Am J Public Health. 1997 Dec;87(12):2042–2044. [PubMed]
  • Crémieux PY, Ouellette P. Actual and perceived impacts of tobacco regulation on restaurants and firms. Tob Control. 2001 Mar;10(1):33–37. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hyland A, Cummings KM. Consumer response to the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act. J Public Health Manag Pract. 1999 Jan;5(1):28–36. [PubMed]
  • Hyland A, Cummings KM. Restaurateur reports of the economic impact of the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act. J Public Health Manag Pract. 1999 Jan;5(1):37–42. [PubMed]
  • Sciacca J, Eckrem M. Effects of a city ordinance regulating smoking in restaurants and retail stores. J Community Health. 1993 Jun;18(3):175–182. [PubMed]
  • Sciacca JP. A mandatory smoking ban in restaurants: concerns versus experiences. J Community Health. 1996 Apr;21(2):133–150. [PubMed]
  • Stanwick RS, Thomson MP, Swerhone PM, Stevenson LA, Fish DG. The response of Winnipeg retail shops and restaurants to a bylaw regulating smoking in public place. Can J Public Health. 1988 Jul-Aug;79(4):226–230. [PubMed]
  • Parry J, Temperton H, Flanagan T, Gerhadt L. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of "non-smoking" areas on trade and customer satisfaction in 11 public houses in Staffordshire. Tob Control. 2001 Jun;10(2):199–200. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bartosch William J, Pope GC. Economic effect of restaurant smoking restrictions on restaurant business in Massachusetts, 1992 to 1998. Tob Control. 2002 Jun;11 (Suppl 2):ii38–ii42. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wakefield M, Roberts L, Miller C. Perceptions of the effect of an impending restaurant smoking ban on dining-out experience. Prev Med. 1999 Jul;29(1):53–56. [PubMed]
  • Jones K, Wakefield M, Turnbull DA. Attitudes and experiences of restaurateurs regarding smoking bans in Adelaide, South Australia. Tob Control. 1999 Spring;8(1):62–66. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Barnes DE, Bero LA. Why review articles on the health effects of passive smoking reach different conclusions. JAMA. 1998 May 20;279(19):1566–1570. [PubMed]

Articles from Tobacco Control are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group