Further research is necessary to elucidate the pathogenesis of chlamydial PID. It is hoped that these endeavours will eventually lead to a vaccine to prevent not only chlamydia infection, but also chlamydia associated infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In the meantime we need to develop strategies to prevent primary and secondary chlamydia infection and its sequelae. Recently, Scholes et. al demonstrated that a population based approach to identify and test women at high risk for cervical C trachomatis infection effectively reduced risk of PID. Hopefully, through the use of public health measures, we can see similar decreases of chlamydia associated genital tract disease worldwide.