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Methods: 251 14–21 year old participants (83% female; 83% African-American) diagnosed with gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomonas, or non-gonococcal urethritis or sexual contacts of infected partners. Participants were clients of a public sexually transmitted diseases clinic or primary care adolescent clinics. Data were collected by structured interview at treatment, 1 month post-treatment, and 3 months post-treatment. At each visit, participants were asked about coital frequency and condom use for each recent partner. At 1 month, participants were asked when coitus occurred following treatment. At each follow up visit, sex partners were compared to partners named at treatment and classified as "same partner(s)," "new partner(s)," or both "same and new partner(s)."
Results: Post-treatment abstinence was reported by 26% and 19% for the 1 month and 3 month visits, respectively. Abstinence was associated with greater likelihood of infection at enrolment although abstainers reported fewer lifetime STI and fewer lifetime sex partners. A substantial proportion of participants reported additional sexual contact with a previous partner. The average proportion of condom protected coital events increased from about 45% at enrolment to 64% at 1 month and 58% at 3 months (p<0.05). Higher levels were sustained for the 3 months following treatment.
Conclusions: Many adolescents adopt, at least temporarily, risk reduction behaviours such as abstinence or increased condom use. Sexual re-exposure to potentially untreated previous partners may increase risk of subsequent reinfection.