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Aim: To determine the neurodevelopmental morbidity in the surviving twin after fetal or infant death of the co-twin.
Methods: Twin pregnancies with an antepartum or infant death delivered between 1981 and 1992 were identified from the Northern Perinatal Mortality Survey. Information on the neurodevelopmental morbidity of infant survivors of a deceased co-twin was obtained by a questionnaire sent to the community paediatrician or general practitioner.
Results: A total of 111 children who survived infancy after the fetal death of the co-twin (group 1) and 142 from liveborn twin pairs in which one twin died in infancy (group 2) were traced. Responses were received from 97 (87%) and 130 (92%) respectively. In group 1, the cerebral palsy prevalence was 93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 43 to 169) per 1000 infant survivors; it was more common in like-sex pairs (8/70) with a prevalence of 114 (95% CI 51 to 213) compared with 45 (95% CI 1 to 228) per 1000 infant survivors in unlike-sex pairs (1/22). The overall prevalence of neurodevelopmental morbidity (including developmental delay) was 175 (95% CI 106 to 266) per 1000. In group 2, the cerebral palsy prevalence was 154 (95% CI 84 to 223) per 1000 infant survivors in like-sex (16/104) and 77 (95% CI 9 to 251) in unlike-sex (2/26) survivors; the overall prevalence of neurodevelopmental morbidity was 246 (95% CI 172 to 320) per 1000.
Conclusions: The risk of cerebral palsy is increased in the surviving twin after a fetal or infant co-twin death compared with the general twin population. Like-sex twins are at greater risk than unlike-sex. The probable cause, in addition to the consequences of prematurity, is twin-twin transfusion problems associated with monochorionicity.