Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of transbThe Royal Society PublishingPhilosophical Transactions BAboutBrowse By SubjectAlertsFree Trial
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1997 June 29; 352(1354): 677–683.
PMCID: PMC1691965

Oxidative metabolism in muscle.


Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantages and problems of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements, in resting and exercising skeletal muscles studies, are discussed through some representative examples.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (359K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bank W, Chance B. An oxidative defect in metabolic myopathies: diagnosis by noninvasive tissue oximetry. Ann Neurol. 1994 Dec;36(6):830–837. [PubMed]
  • Belardinelli R, Barstow TJ, Porszasz J, Wasserman K. Skeletal muscle oxygenation during constant work rate exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995 Apr;27(4):512–519. [PubMed]
  • Belardinelli R, Barstow TJ, Porszasz J, Wasserman K. Changes in skeletal muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise measured with near infrared spectroscopy. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1995;70(6):487–492. [PubMed]
  • Belardinelli R, Georgiou D, Barstow TJ. Near infrared spectroscopy and changes in skeletal muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise in chronic heart failure: a comparison with healthy subjects. G Ital Cardiol. 1995 Jun;25(6):715–724. [PubMed]
  • Chance B, Bank W. Genetic disease of mitochondrial function evaluated by NMR and NIR spectroscopy of skeletal tissue. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 May 24;1271(1):7–14. [PubMed]
  • Chance B, Borer E, Evans A, Holtom G, Kent J, Maris M, McCully K, Northrop J, Shinkwin M. Optical and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of hypoxia in human tissue and tumors. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;551:1–16. [PubMed]
  • Chance B, Dait MT, Zhang C, Hamaoka T, Hagerman F. Recovery from exercise-induced desaturation in the quadriceps muscles of elite competitive rowers. Am J Physiol. 1992 Mar;262(3 Pt 1):C766–C775. [PubMed]
  • Chance B, Nioka S, Kent J, McCully K, Fountain M, Greenfeld R, Holtom G. Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle. Anal Biochem. 1988 Nov 1;174(2):698–707. [PubMed]
  • Cheatle TR, Potter LA, Cope M, Delpy DT, Coleridge Smith PD, Scurr JH. Near-infrared spectroscopy in peripheral vascular disease. Br J Surg. 1991 Apr;78(4):405–408. [PubMed]
  • Conway JM, Norris KH, Bodwell CE. A new approach for the estimation of body composition: infrared interactance. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Dec;40(6):1123–1130. [PubMed]
  • Cope M, Delpy DT. System for long-term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by near infra-red transillumination. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1988 May;26(3):289–294. [PubMed]
  • Costes F, Barthélémy JC, Féasson L, Busso T, Geyssant A, Denis C. Comparison of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy and femoral blood gases during steady-state exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1996 Apr;80(4):1345–1350. [PubMed]
  • De Blasi RA, Cope M, Elwell C, Safoue F, Ferrari M. Noninvasive measurement of human forearm oxygen consumption by near infrared spectroscopy. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1993;67(1):20–25. [PubMed]
  • De Blasi RA, Fantini S, Franceschini MA, Ferrari M, Gratton E. Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by frequency-domain near-infra-red spectrometer. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1995 Mar;33(2):228–230. [PubMed]
  • De Blasi RA, Ferrari M, Natali A, Conti G, Mega A, Gasparetto A. Noninvasive measurement of forearm blood flow and oxygen consumption by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1994 Mar;76(3):1388–1393. [PubMed]
  • De Blasi RA, Sfareni R, Pietranico B, Mega AM, Ferrari M. Non invasive measurement of brachioradial muscle VO2-blood flow relationship during graded isometric exercise. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;388:293–298. [PubMed]
  • Duncan A, Meek JH, Clemence M, Elwell CE, Tyszczuk L, Cope M, Delpy DT. Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy. Phys Med Biol. 1995 Feb;40(2):295–304. [PubMed]
  • Edwards AD, Richardson C, van der Zee P, Elwell C, Wyatt JS, Cope M, Delpy DT, Reynolds EO. Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1993 Oct;75(4):1884–1889. [PubMed]
  • Ferrari M, Wei Q, Carraresi L, De Blasi RA, Zaccanti G. Time-resolved spectroscopy of the human forearm. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1992 Oct 30;16(2):141–153. [PubMed]
  • Giannini I, Ferrari M, Carpi A, Fasella P. Rat brain monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopy: an assessment of possible clinical significance. Physiol Chem Phys. 1982;14(3):295–305. [PubMed]
  • Hampson NB, Piantadosi CA. Near infrared monitoring of human skeletal muscle oxygenation during forearm ischemia. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1988 Jun;64(6):2449–2457. [PubMed]
  • Hansen J, Thomas GD, Harris SA, Parsons WJ, Victor RG. Differential sympathetic neural control of oxygenation in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest. 1996 Jul 15;98(2):584–596. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jensen-Urstad M, Hallbäck I, Sahlin K. Effect of hypoxia on muscle oxygenation and metabolism during arm exercise in humans. Clin Physiol. 1995 Jan;15(1):27–37. [PubMed]
  • Kemp GJ, Thompson CH, Barnes PR, Radda GK. Comparisons of ATP turnover in human muscle during ischemic and aerobic exercise using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med. 1994 Mar;31(3):248–258. [PubMed]
  • Komiyama T, Shigematsu H, Yasuhara H, Muto T. An objective assessment of intermittent claudication by near-infrared spectroscopy. Eur J Vasc Surg. 1994 May;8(3):294–296. [PubMed]
  • Mancini DM, Ferraro N, Nazzaro D, Chance B, Wilson JR. Respiratory muscle deoxygenation during exercise in patients with heart failure demonstrated with near-infrared spectroscopy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991 Aug;18(2):492–498. [PubMed]
  • Mancini DM, Bolinger L, Li H, Kendrick K, Chance B, Wilson JR. Validation of near-infrared spectroscopy in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1994 Dec;77(6):2740–2747. [PubMed]
  • Mancini DM, Henson D, LaManca J, Levine S. Evidence of reduced respiratory muscle endurance in patients with heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994 Oct;24(4):972–981. [PubMed]
  • Mancini DM, LaManca JJ, Donchez LJ, Levine S, Henson DJ. Diminished respiratory muscle endurance persists after cardiac transplantation. Am J Cardiol. 1995 Feb 15;75(5):418–421. [PubMed]
  • Mancini DM, La Manca J, Donchez L, Henson D, Levine S. The sensation of dyspnea during exercise is not determined by the work of breathing in patients with heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996 Aug;28(2):391–395. [PubMed]
  • Mancini DM, Wilson JR, Bolinger L, Li H, Kendrick K, Chance B, Leigh JS. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurement of deoxymyoglobin during exercise in patients with heart failure. Demonstration of abnormal muscle metabolism despite adequate oxygenation. Circulation. 1994 Jul;90(1):500–508. [PubMed]
  • Matcher SJ, Elwell CE, Cooper CE, Cope M, Delpy DT. Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms. Anal Biochem. 1995 May 1;227(1):54–68. [PubMed]
  • Matsui S, Tamura N, Hirakawa T, Kobayashi S, Takekoshi N, Murakami E. Assessment of working skeletal muscle oxygenation in patients with chronic heart failure. Am Heart J. 1995 Apr;129(4):690–695. [PubMed]
  • McCully KK, Halber C, Posner JD. Exercise-induced changes in oxygen saturation in the calf muscles of elderly subjects with peripheral vascular disease. J Gerontol. 1994 May;49(3):B128–B134. [PubMed]
  • McCully KK, Iotti S, Kendrick K, Wang Z, Posner JD, Leigh J, Jr, Chance B. Simultaneous in vivo measurements of HbO2 saturation and PCr kinetics after exercise in normal humans. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1994 Jul;77(1):5–10. [PubMed]
  • McCully KK, Posner JD. The application of blood flow measurements to the study of aging muscle. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1995 Nov;50(Spec No):130–136. [PubMed]
  • Quaresima V, De Blasi RA, Ferrari M. Customised optrode holder for clinical near-infra-red spectroscopy measurements. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1995 Jul;33(4):627–628. [PubMed]
  • Quaresima V, Pizzi A, De Blasi RA, Ferrari A, Ferrari M. Influence of the treadmill speed/slope on quadriceps oxygenation during dynamic exercise. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;388:231–235. [PubMed]
  • Seiyama A, Hazeki O, Tamura M. Noninvasive quantitative analysis of blood oxygenation in rat skeletal muscle. J Biochem. 1988 Mar;103(3):419–424. [PubMed]
  • Shiga T, Tanabe K, Nakase Y, Shida T, Chance B. Development of a portable tissue oximeter using near infra-red spectroscopy. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1995 Jul;33(4):622–626. [PubMed]
  • Takada M, Tamura T, Tamura M. Non-invasive near-infrared measurements of human arm tissues in vivo. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1987;215:301–304. [PubMed]
  • Tamaki T, Uchiyama S, Tamura T, Nakano S. Changes in muscle oxygenation during weight-lifting exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1994;68(6):465–469. [PubMed]
  • Thompson CH, Macaulay VM, O'Byrne KJ, Kemp GJ, Wilner SM, Talbot DC, Harris AL, Radda GK. Modulation of bryostatin 1 muscle toxicity by nifedipine: effects on muscle metabolism and oxygen supply. Br J Cancer. 1996 May;73(10):1161–1165. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wang ZY, Noyszewski EA, Leigh JS., Jr In vivo MRS measurement of deoxymyoglobin in human forearms. Magn Reson Med. 1990 Jun;14(3):562–567. [PubMed]
  • Wilson JR, Mancini DM, McCully K, Ferraro N, Lanoce V, Chance B. Noninvasive detection of skeletal muscle underperfusion with near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with heart failure. Circulation. 1989 Dec;80(6):1668–1674. [PubMed]
  • Wittenberg BA, Wittenberg JB. Transport of oxygen in muscle. Annu Rev Physiol. 1989;51:857–878. [PubMed]
  • Yoxall CW, Weindling AM. The measurement of peripheral venous oxyhemoglobin saturation in newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy with venous occlusion. Pediatr Res. 1996 Jun;39(6):1103–1106. [PubMed]

Articles from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences are provided here courtesy of The Royal Society