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Proc Biol Sci. Feb 7, 2003; 270(1512): 313–321.
PMCID: PMC1691236
Biological identifications through DNA barcodes.
Paul D N Hebert, Alina Cywinska, Shelley L Ball, and Jeremy R deWaard
Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.
Paul D N Hebert: phebert/at/uoguelph.ca
Although much biological research depends upon species diagnoses, taxonomic expertise is collapsing. We are convinced that the sole prospect for a sustainable identification capability lies in the construction of systems that employ DNA sequences as taxon 'barcodes'. We establish that the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) can serve as the core of a global bioidentification system for animals. First, we demonstrate that COI profiles, derived from the low-density sampling of higher taxonomic categories, ordinarily assign newly analysed taxa to the appropriate phylum or order. Second, we demonstrate that species-level assignments can be obtained by creating comprehensive COI profiles. A model COI profile, based upon the analysis of a single individual from each of 200 closely allied species of lepidopterans, was 100% successful in correctly identifying subsequent specimens. When fully developed, a COI identification system will provide a reliable, cost-effective and accessible solution to the current problem of species identification. Its assembly will also generate important new insights into the diversification of life and the rules of molecular evolution.
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Supplementary data file
Articles from Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences are provided here courtesy of
The Royal Society