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A defined medium with glucose as the carbon source was used to quantitatively determine the metabolic end products produced by Listeria monocytogenes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Of 10 strains tested, all produced acetoin under aerobic conditions but not anaerobic conditions. Percent carbon recoveries of end products, typified by strain F5069, were as follows: lactate, 28%; acetate, 23%; and acetoin, 26% for aerobic growth and lactate, 79%; acetate, 2%; formate, 5.4%; ethanol, 7.8%; and carbon dioxide, 2.3% for anaerobic growth. No attempt to determine carbon dioxide under aerobic growth conditions was made. The possibility of using acetoin production to assay for growth of L. monocytogenes under defined conditions should be considered.