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DNA dot blot hybridizations with a cryV-specific probe and a cryI-specific probe were performed to screen 24 Bacillus thuringiensis strains for their cryV-type (lepidopteran- and coleopteran-specific) and cryI-type (lepidopteran-specific) insecticidal crystal protein gene contents, respectively. The cryV-specific probe hybridized to 12 of the B. thuringiensis strains examined. Most of the cryV-positive strains also hybridized to the cryI-specific probe, indicating that the cryV genes are closely related to cryI genes. Two cryV-type genes, cryV1 and cryV465, were cloned from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 and B. thuringiensis subsp. entomocidus BP465, respectively, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The CryV1 protein was toxic to Plutella xylostella and Bombyx mori, whereas the CryV465 protein was toxic only to Plutella xylostella.