Pichia anomala inhibits the growth of Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus candidus on agar. In this investigation, antagonistic activity on agar against 17 mold species was determined. The abilities of Pichia anomala, Pichia guilliermondii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibit the growth of the mold Penicillium roqueforti in nonsterile high-moisture wheat were compared by adding 10(3) Penicillium roqueforti spores and different amounts of yeast cells per gram of wheat. Inoculated grain was packed in glass tubes, incubated at 25 degrees C with a restricted air supply, and the numbers of yeast and mold CFU were determined on selective media after 7 and 14 days. Pichia anomala reduced growth on agar plates for all of the mold species tested in a dose-dependent manner. Aspergillus fumigatus and Eurotium amstelodami were the most sensitive, while Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum were the most resistant. Pichia anomala had the strongest antagonistic activity in wheat, with 10(5) and 10(6) CFU/g completely inhibiting the growth of Penicillium roqueforti. Inhibition was least pronounced at the optimum temperature (21 degrees C) and water activity (0.95) for the growth of Penicillium roqueforti. Pichia guilliermondii slightly reduced the growth of Penicillium roqueforti in wheat inoculated with 10(5) and 10(6) yeast CFU/g. S. cerevisiae inhibited mold growth only weakly at the highest inoculum level. Pichia anomala grew from 10(3) to 10(7) CFU/g of wheat in 1 week. To reach the same level, Pichia guilliermondii had to be inoculated at 10(4) CFU while S. cerevisiae required an inoculum of 10(5) CFU to reach 10(7) CFU/g of wheat.