Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of bmjThe BMJ
BMJ. 1990 March 3; 300(6724): 566–569.
PMCID: PMC1662349

Coffee consumption and death from coronary heart disease in middle aged Norwegian men and women.


OBJECTIVE--To study the association between number of cups of coffee consumed per day and coronary death when taking other major coronary risk factors into account. DESIGN--Men and women attending screening and followed up for a mean of 6.4 years. SETTING--Cardiovascular survey performed by ambulatory teams from the National Health Screening Service in Norway. PARTICIPANTS--All middle aged people in three counties: 19,398 men and 19,166 women aged 35-54 years who reported neither cardiovascular disease or diabetes nor symptoms of angina pectoris or intermittent claudication. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Predictive value of number of cups of coffee consumed per day. RESULTS--At initial screening total serum cholesterol concentration, high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, blood pressure, height, and weight were measured and self reported information about smoking history, physical activity, and coffee drinking habits was recorded. Altogether 168 men and 16 women died of coronary heart disease during follow up. Mean cholesterol concentrations for men and women were almost identical and increased from the lowest to highest coffee consumption group (13.1% and 10.9% respectively). With the proportional hazards model and adjustment for age, total serum and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, systolic blood pressure, and number of cigarettes per day the coefficient for coffee corresponded to a relative risk between nine or more cups of coffee and less than one cup of 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 4.5) for men and 5.1 (0.4 to 60.3) for women. For men the relative risk varied among the three counties. CONCLUSIONS--Coffee may affect mortality from coronary heart disease over and above its effect in raising cholesterol concentrations.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (879K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Thelle DS, Heyden S, Fodor JG. Coffee and cholesterol in epidemiological and experimental studies. Atherosclerosis. 1987 Oct;67(2-3):97–103. [PubMed]
  • Bønaa K, Arnesen E, Thelle DS, Førde OH. Coffee and cholesterol: is it all in the brewing? The Tromsø Study. BMJ. 1988 Oct 29;297(6656):1103–1104. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tverdal A. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures as predictors of coronary heart disease in middle aged Norwegian men. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987 Mar 14;294(6573):671–673. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LaCroix AZ, Mead LA, Liang KY, Thomas CB, Pearson TA. Coffee consumption and the incidence of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1986 Oct 16;315(16):977–982. [PubMed]
  • LeGrady D, Dyer AR, Shekelle RB, Stamler J, Liu K, Paul O, Lepper M, Shryock AM. Coffee consumption and mortality in the Chicago Western Electric Company Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1987 Nov;126(5):803–812. [PubMed]
  • Stensvold I, Tverdal A, Foss OP. The effect of coffee on blood lipids and blood pressure. Results from a Norwegian cross-sectional study, men and women, 40-42 years. J Clin Epidemiol. 1989;42(9):877–884. [PubMed]
  • Williams PT, Wood PD, Vranizan KM, Albers JJ, Garay SC, Taylor CB. Coffee intake and elevated cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels in men. JAMA. 1985 Mar 8;253(10):1407–1411. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Periti M, Salvaggio A, Quaglia G, Di Marzio L. Coffee consumption and blood pressure: an Italian study. Clin Sci (Lond) 1987 Apr;72(4):443–447. [PubMed]
  • Bjartveit K, Foss OP, Gjervig T, Lund-Larsen PG. The cardiovascular disease study in Norwegian counties. Background and organization. Acta Med Scand Suppl. 1979;634:1–70. [PubMed]
  • Solvoll K, Selmer R, Løken EB, Foss OP, Trygg K. Coffee, dietary habits, and serum cholesterol among men and women 35-49 years of age. Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Jun;129(6):1277–1288. [PubMed]
  • Thelle DS, Førde OH, Arnesen E. Distribution of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol according to age, sex, and ethnic origin: cardiovascular disease study in Finnmark 1977. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1982 Dec;36(4):243–247. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tretli S, Bjartveit K, Foss OP, Haider T, Lund-Larsen PG. Intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors in Finnmark county: changes after a period of three years. The Cardiovascular Disease Study in Finnmark County, Norway. Scand J Soc Med. 1985;13(1):1–13. [PubMed]
  • Berry G. The analysis of mortality by the subject-years method. Biometrics. 1983 Mar;39(1):173–184. [PubMed]
  • Vandongen R. Coffee and heart disease: the hypothesis re-examined. Med J Aust. 1988 Feb 15;148(4):161–162. [PubMed]

Articles from The BMJ are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group