Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of skullbasesurgInstructions for AuthorsSubscribe to Skull BaseAbout Skull BaseEditorial BoardThieme Medical PublishingSkull Base An Interdisciplinary Approach ...
Skull base surgery. 1994 October; 4(4): 193–201.
PMCID: PMC1661814

Faciohypoglossal Anastomosis

Does the Morphology of the Facial Nerve Affect the Functional Result?


We report the results of a histological study of facial nerve specimens obtained at the time of faciohypoglossal anastomosis. We examined sections from 24 patients using light and electron microscopy in order to determine the extent of the degenerative process with time and its relationship to the functional results of the anastomosis. We graded the histological features associated with degeneration, regeneration, and fibrosis on an ordered nominal scale from 0 to 3 and correlated them with duration of facial palsy and postoperative facial function. There was no histological evidence of increasing collagenosis or fibrosis with duration of facial palsy, and endoneural fibrosis was a very infrequent finding. There was no evidence that the relative numbers of endoneural fibrocytes or the degree of collagenosis had any bearing on the functional result. The presence of large numbers of endoneural tubes, containing nonmyelinated axons, showed a positive correlation with the postoperative facial function, whereas the presence of active axon degeneration showed a negative correlation.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (3.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • SUNDERLAND S, BRADLEY KC. Denervation atrophy of the distal stump of a severed nerve. J Comp Neurol. 1950 Dec;93(3):401–409. [PubMed]
  • Ylikoski J, Brackmann DE, Savolainen S. Facial nerve abnormalities after acoustic tumor removal. Morphological and clinical study of seven patients with postoperative facial paralysis. Arch Otolaryngol. 1982 Dec;108(12):795–800. [PubMed]
  • Ylikoski J, Hitselberger WE, House WF, Sanna M. Degenerative changes in the distal stump of the severed human facial nerve. Acta Otolaryngol. 1981 Sep-Oct;92(3-4):239–248. [PubMed]
  • Gavron JP, Clemis JD. Hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis: a review of forty cases caused by facial nerve injuries in the posterior fossa. Laryngoscope. 1984 Nov;94(11 Pt 1):1447–1450. [PubMed]
  • Sabin HI, Bordi LT, Symon L, Compton JS. Facio-hypoglossal anastomosis for the treatment of facial palsy after acoustic neuroma resection. Br J Neurosurg. 1990;4(4):313–317. [PubMed]
  • Conley J, Baker DC. Hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis for reinnervation of the paralyzed face. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1979 Jan;63(1):63–72. [PubMed]
  • Fisch U. Surgery for Bell's palsy. Arch Otolaryngol. 1981 Jan;107(1):1–11. [PubMed]
  • Hitselberger WE. Hypoglossal-facial anastomosis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1974 Jun;7(2):545–550. [PubMed]
  • Felix H, Eby TL, Fisch U. New aspects of facial nerve pathology in temporal bone fractures. Acta Otolaryngol. 1991;111(2):332–336. [PubMed]
  • Frey M, Happak W, Girsch W, Bittner RE, Gruber H. Histomorphometric studies in patients with facial palsy treated by functional muscle transplantation: new aspects for the surgical concept. Ann Plast Surg. 1991 Apr;26(4):370–379. [PubMed]

Articles from Skull Base Surgery are provided here courtesy of Thieme Medical Publishers