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Skull Base. 2001 August; 11(3): 207–218.
PMCID: PMC1656855

Carotid-Cavernous Fistulas

Pathogenesis and Routes of Approach to Endovascular Treatment


The etiology, classification, clinical presentation, complications, and intravascular routes to image and treat carotid-cavernous fistulas percutaneously are described. Endoarterial and transvenous approaches (through the jugular, inferior petrosal, or cavernous veins) are discussed in relation to the etiology, size, and characteristics of the fistulas, as well as in relation to the planned therapeutic approach and its possible complications. Possible outcomes, with particular attention to the internal carotid circulation, side effects, and complications also are discussed in relation to etiology and type of fistula. Four exemplary cases are presented.

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Selected References

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