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Skull base surgery. 1994 January; 4(1): 15–20.
PMCID: PMC1656472

Transfacial Transpterygomaxillary Access to Foramen Rotundum, Sphenopalatine Ganglion, and the Maxillary Nerve in the Management of Atypical Facial Pain


Post-traumatic atypical facial pain syndromes are refractory to medical therapy and thus challenging to treat. Some of these patients have a facial causalgia syndrome that may include autonomic as well as trigeminal fibers as the anatomic mediators. A procedure that may be of both diagnostic and therapeutic benefit is a nerve block in the region of the foramen rotundum. This allows access to both the maxillary nerve and the sphenopalatine ganglion. A simple technique developed to perform this procedure is described, and the results in a series of six patients are presented.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Solomon S. Cluster headache and the nervus intermedius. Headache. 1986 Jan;26(1):3–8. [PubMed]

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