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Skull base surgery. 1991 April; 1(2): 127–131.
PMCID: PMC1656317

Continuous Electrical Stimulation as a Helpful Adjunct During Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring


Routine intraoperative monitoring of facial function has been used since 1985. An adaptor has been developed for continuous stimulation (SACS) to be used with the new WR-S8, Monitor/Stimulation The SACS allows the microsurgical instruments and air drills to be electrified and to function as probe tips during surgical dissection. The new WR-S8 Monitor/Stimulator has an ultrasensitive strain gauge that detects facial movement before it is palpable. The remote probe allows an assistant to adjust the current easily. The routine use of facial nerve monitoring with SACS has decreased surgical time, has helped prevent iatrogenic injuries, and has improved our ability to save the facial nerve during otologic and neuro-otologic surgery.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Silverstein H. Microsurgical instruments and nerve stimulator--monitor for retrolabyrinthine vestibular neurectomy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1986 Mar;94(3):409–411. [PubMed]
  • Silverstein H, Smouha EE, Jones R. Routine intraoperative facial nerve monitoring during otologic surgery. Am J Otol. 1988 Jul;9(4):269–275. [PubMed]
  • Silverstein H, Smouha E, Jones R. Routine identification of the facial nerve using electrical stimulation during otological and neurotological surgery. Laryngoscope. 1988 Jul;98(7):726–730. [PubMed]
  • Møller AR, Jannetta PJ. Preservation of facial function during removal of acoustic neuromas. Use of monopolar constant-voltage stimulation and EMG. J Neurosurg. 1984 Oct;61(4):757–760. [PubMed]
  • Prass R, Lüders H. Constant-current versus constant-voltage stimulation. J Neurosurg. 1985 Apr;62(4):622–623. [PubMed]
  • Constant O, Blake P. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina. Br J Radiol. 1989 Jul;62(739):623–624. [PubMed]
  • Kartush JM. Electroneurography and intraoperative facial monitoring in contemporary neurotology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1989 Oct;101(4):496–503. [PubMed]

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