Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of aacPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalAAC ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997 November; 41(11): 2448–2455.
PMCID: PMC164143

Efficacy of enrofloxacin or doxycycline for treatment of Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae infection in cats.


Enrofloxacin and doxycycline are antimicrobial agents used to treat bacterial diseases of cats. In vitro susceptibility data indicate that either drug should be effective against Bartonella species. In vivo efficacies of these drugs for eradication of chronic Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae infections were examined in 18 experimentally infected cats and 25 naturally exposed cats treated with enrofloxacin (22.7 mg given orally [PO] every 12 h [q12h] [14 days, n = 10; 28 days, n = 13]) or with doxycycline (25 mg PO q12h [14 days, n = 9; 28 days, n = 8]) or not treated (n = 3). Plasma drug concentrations were determined in experimental cats by high-performance liquid chromatography. Only 23 of 43 cats enrolled ultimately met inclusion criteria. Bacteremia was eliminated for 12 to 25 weeks posttreatment in four of seven cats receiving 14 days of enrofloxacin, five of seven cats receiving 28 days of enrofloxacin, one of six cats receiving 14 days of doxycycline, and one of two cats receiving 28 days of doxycycline. Defining a negative result by blood culture as treatment success may be erroneous; these results may reflect the insensitivity of blood culture or the relapsing nature of Bartonella bacteremia. Our results suggest that MICs obtained with axenic media do not predict antimicrobial activity against intracellular Bartonella, that a long treatment course is required to eliminate infection, and that duration of therapy correlates with pretreatment bacterial load. Given current concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, we would reserve recommendation for treatment to cats owned by an immunocompromised individual or as an alternative to euthanasia of a pet.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (176K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Anderson BE, Neuman MA. Bartonella spp. as emerging human pathogens. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1997 Apr;10(2):203–219. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bogue CW, Wise JD, Gray GF, Edwards KM. Antibiotic therapy for cat-scratch disease? JAMA. 1989 Aug 11;262(6):813–816. [PubMed]
  • Breitschwerdt EB, Kordick DL, Malarkey DE, Keene B, Hadfield TL, Wilson K. Endocarditis in a dog due to infection with a novel Bartonella subspecies. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Jan;33(1):154–160. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chomel BB, Abbott RC, Kasten RW, Floyd-Hawkins KA, Kass PH, Glaser CA, Pedersen NC, Koehler JE. Bartonella henselae prevalence in domestic cats in California: risk factors and association between bacteremia and antibody titers. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Sep;33(9):2445–2450. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chomel BB, Kasten RW, Floyd-Hawkins K, Chi B, Yamamoto K, Roberts-Wilson J, Gurfield AN, Abbott RC, Pedersen NC, Koehler JE. Experimental transmission of Bartonella henselae by the cat flea. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Aug;34(8):1952–1956. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Demers DM, Bass JW, Vincent JM, Person DA, Noyes DK, Staege CM, Samlaska CP, Lockwood NH, Regnery RL, Anderson BE. Cat-scratch disease in Hawaii: etiology and seroepidemiology. J Pediatr. 1995 Jul;127(1):23–26. [PubMed]
  • Greene CE, McDermott M, Jameson PH, Atkins CL, Marks AM. Bartonella henselae infection in cats: evaluation during primary infection, treatment, and rechallenge infection. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Jul;34(7):1682–1685. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hadfield TL, Warren R, Kass M, Brun E, Levy C. Endocarditis caused by Rochalimaea henselae. Hum Pathol. 1993 Oct;24(10):1140–1141. [PubMed]
  • Hof H. Intracellular microorganisms: a particular problem for chemotherapy. Introduction. Infection. 1991;19 (Suppl 4):S193–S194. [PubMed]
  • Holley HP., Jr Successful treatment of cat-scratch disease with ciprofloxacin. JAMA. 1991 Mar 27;265(12):1563–1565. [PubMed]
  • Koehler JE, Glaser CA, Tappero JW. Rochalimaea henselae infection. A new zoonosis with the domestic cat as reservoir. JAMA. 1994 Feb 16;271(7):531–535. [PubMed]
  • Kordick DL, Wilson KH, Sexton DJ, Hadfield TL, Berkhoff HA, Breitschwerdt EB. Prolonged Bartonella bacteremia in cats associated with cat-scratch disease patients. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Dec;33(12):3245–3251. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kordick DL, Breitschwerdt EB. Intraerythrocytic presence of Bartonella henselae. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Jun;33(6):1655–1656. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kordick DL, Swaminathan B, Greene CE, Wilson KH, Whitney AM, O'Connor S, Hollis DG, Matar GM, Steigerwalt AG, Malcolm GB, et al. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii subsp. nov., isolated from dogs; Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii; and emended description of Bartonella vinsonii. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1996 Jul;46(3):704–709. [PubMed]
  • Kordick DL, Breitschwerdt EB. Relapsing bacteremia after blood transmission of Bartonella henselae to cats. Am J Vet Res. 1997 May;58(5):492–497. [PubMed]
  • Kordick DL, Hilyard EJ, Hadfield TL, Wilson KH, Steigerwalt AG, Brenner DJ, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella clarridgeiae, a newly recognized zoonotic pathogen causing inoculation papules, fever, and lymphadenopathy (cat scratch disease). J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Jul;35(7):1813–1818. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lee WR, Chawla JC, Reid R. Bacillary angiomatosis of the conjunctiva. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994 Aug 15;118(2):152–157. [PubMed]
  • Margileth AM. Antibiotic therapy for cat-scratch disease: clinical study of therapeutic outcome in 268 patients and a review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1992 Jun;11(6):474–478. [PubMed]
  • Maurin M, Lepocher H, Mallet D, Raoult D. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Afipia felis in axenic medium and in cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Jul;37(7):1410–1413. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maurin M, Raoult D. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Rochalimaea quintana, Rochalimaea vinsonii, and the newly recognized Rochalimaea henselae. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1993 Oct;32(4):587–594. [PubMed]
  • Maurin M, Gasquet S, Ducco C, Raoult D. MICs of 28 antibiotic compounds for 14 Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995 Nov;39(11):2387–2391. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mui BS, Mulligan ME, George WL. Response of HIV-associated disseminated cat scratch disease to treatment with doxycycline. Am J Med. 1990 Aug;89(2):229–231. [PubMed]
  • Musso D, Drancourt M, Raoult D. Lack of bactericidal effect of antibiotics except aminoglycosides on Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1995 Jul;36(1):101–108. [PubMed]
  • Pocidalo JJ. Use of fluoroquinolones for intracellular pathogens. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jul-Aug;11 (Suppl 5):S979–S984. [PubMed]
  • Regnery RL, Rooney JA, Johnson AM, Nesby SL, Manzewitsch P, Beaver K, Olson JG. Experimentally induced Bartonella henselae infections followed by challenge exposure and antimicrobial therapy in cats. Am J Vet Res. 1996 Dec;57(12):1714–1719. [PubMed]
  • Riond JL, Vaden SL, Riviere JE. Comparative pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in cats and dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1990 Dec;13(4):415–424. [PubMed]
  • Schwartzman WA. Infections due to Rochalimaea: the expanding clinical spectrum. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Dec;15(6):893–900. [PubMed]
  • Wilson KH, Blitchington RB, Greene RC. Amplification of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA with polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Sep;28(9):1942–1946. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)