In this study, oral administration of the triazole D0870 was compared to oral administration of fluconazole in the treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis. With an estrogen-dependent murine model of Candida albicans vaginal infection, the effects of D0870 on several isolates, including fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant isolates, were tested. D0870, at doses of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg of body weight given once over the course of a 10-day infection, was effective in eradicating vaginitis caused by fluconazole-susceptible laboratory and clinical isolates, respectively. In contrast, a stricter treatment regimen (every 24 to 48 h) with 10 and 25 mg of fluconazole per kg was required to achieve similar reductions in vaginal fungal titers induced by the same isolates. Whereas fluconazole was consistently ineffective in infections induced by fluconazole-resistant isolates, as predicted by in vitro susceptibility tests, D0870 was effective, although a daily regimen of 25 mg/kg was required. Additional studies showed that despite the in vitro activity of D0870 against two clinical Candida glabrata isolates, neither D0870 nor fluconazole was effective at daily doses as high as 100 and 125 mg/kg, respectively. Taken together, although D0870 failed to show efficacy against experimental C. glabrata vaginitis, D0870 was superior to fluconazole in the treatment of experimental C. albicans vaginitis caused by isolates that were either susceptible or resistant to fluconazole.