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BMS-200475 is a novel carbocyclic 2'-deoxyguanosine analog found to possess potent and selective anti-hepatitis B virus (anti-HBV) activity. BMS-200475 is distinguished from guanosine by replacement of the natural furanose oxygen on the sugar moiety with an exo carbon-carbon double bond. In the HepG2 stably transfected cell line 2.2.15, BMS-200475 had a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 3.75 nM against HBV, as determined by analysis of secreted HBV DNA. Structurally related compounds with adenine, iodouracil, or thymine base substitutions were significantly less potent or were inactive. Direct comparison of the antiviral activities of BMS-200475 with those of a variety of other nucleoside analogs, including lamivudine (EC50 = 116.26 nM), demonstrated the clearly superior in vitro potency of BMS-200475 in 2.2.15 cells. Intracellular HBV replicative intermediates were uniformly reduced when cells were treated with BMS-200475, but rebounded after treatment was terminated. The concentration of BMS-200475 causing 50% cytotoxicity in 2.2.15 cell cultures was 30 microM, approximately 8,000-fold greater than the concentration required to inhibit HBV replication in the same cell line. Treatment with BMS-200475 resulted in no apparent inhibitory effects on mitochondrial DNA content.