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I used generalized additive models to analyze the time-series of daily total nonaccidental and cause-specific (cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) deaths over the period 1987-1995 in three major U.S. metropolitan areas: Cook County, Los Angeles County, and Maricopa County. In all three counties I had monitoring information on particulate matter [less than/equal to] 10 microm (PM(10)), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. In Los Angeles, monitoring information on particulate matter [less than/equal to] 2.5 microm (PM(2.5)) was available as well. I present the results of both single and multi-pollutant analyses. Air pollution was associated with each of the mortality end points. With respect to the individual components of the pollution mix, the results indicate considerable heterogeneity of air pollution effects in the different geographic locations. In general, the gases, particularly CO, but not ozone, were much more strongly associated with mortality than was particulate matter. This association was particularly striking in Los Angeles County.