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Environ Health Perspect. 2000 August; 108(8): 731–735.
PMCID: PMC1638277
Research Article

Longitudinal investigation of exposure to arsenic, cadmium, and lead in drinking water.


Arsenic, cadmium, and lead have been associated with various forms of cancer, nephrotoxicity, central nervous system effects, and cardiovascular disease in humans. Drinking water is a well-recognized pathway of exposure to these metals. To improve understanding of the temporal dimension of exposure to As, Cd, and Pb in drinking water, we obtained 381 samples of tap and/or tap/filtered water and self-reported rates of drinking water consumption from 73 members of a stratified random sample in Maryland. Data were collected at approximately 2-month intervals from September 1995 through September 1996. Concentrations of As (range < 0.2-13.8 microg/L) and Pb (< 0.1-13.4 microg/L) were within the ranges reported for the United States, as were the rates of drinking water consumption (median < 0.1-4.1 L/day). Cd was present at a detectable level in only 8.1% of the water samples. Mean log-transformed concentrations and exposures for As and Pb varied significantly among sampling cycles and among respondents, as did rates of drinking water consumption, according to a generalized linear model that accounted for potential correlation among repeated measures from the same respondent. We used the intraclass correlation coefficient of reliability to attribute the total variance observed for each exposure metric to between-person and within-person variability. Between-person variability was estimated to account for 67, 81, and 55% of the total variance in drinking water consumption, As exposure (micrograms per day), and Pb exposure (micrograms per day), respectively. We discuss these results with respect to their implications for future exposure assessment research, quantitative risk assessment, and environmental epidemiology.

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