PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of envhperEnvironmental Health PerspectivesBrowse ArticlesAbout EHPGeneral InformationAuthorsMediaProgramsPartnerships
 
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 January; 108(1): 35–44.
PMCID: PMC1637850
Research Article

Characterization of indoor particle sources: A study conducted in the metropolitan Boston area.

Abstract

An intensive particle monitoring study was conducted in homes in the Boston, Massachusetts, area during the winter and summer of 1996 in an effort to characterize sources of indoor particles. As part of this study, continuous particle size and mass concentration data were collected in four single-family homes, with each home monitored for one or two 6-day periods. Additionally, housing activity and air exchange rate data were collected. Cooking, cleaning, and the movement of people were identified as the most important indoor particle sources in these homes. These sources contributed significantly both to indoor concentrations (indoor-outdoor ratios varied between 2 and 33) and to altered indoor particle size distributions. Cooking, including broiling/baking, toasting, and barbecuing contributed primarily to particulate matter with physical diameters between 0.02 and 0.5 microm [PM((0.02-0.5))], with volume median diameters of between 0.13 and 0.25 microm. Sources of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters between 0.7 and 10 microm [PM((0.7-10))] included sautéing, cleaning (vacuuming, dusting, and sweeping), and movement of people, with volume median diameters of between 3 and 4.3 microm. Frying was associated with particles from both PM((0.02-0.5)) and PM((0.7-10)). Air exchange rates ranged between 0.12 and 24.3 exchanges/hr and had significant impact on indoor particle levels and size distributions. Low air exchange rates (< 1 exchange/hr) resulted in longer air residence times and more time for particle concentrations from indoor sources to increase. When air exchange rates were higher (> 1 exchange/hr), the impact of indoor sources was less pronounced, as indoor particle concentrations tracked outdoor levels more closely.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (4.8M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Dockery DW, Pope CA, 3rd, Xu X, Spengler JD, Ware JH, Fay ME, Ferris BG, Jr, Speizer FE. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. N Engl J Med. 1993 Dec 9;329(24):1753–1759. [PubMed]
  • Schwartz J, Dockery DW, Neas LM. Is daily mortality associated specifically with fine particles? J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 1996 Oct;46(10):927–939. [PubMed]
  • Dockery DW, Pope CA., 3rd Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution. Annu Rev Public Health. 1994;15:107–132. [PubMed]
  • Pope CA, 3rd, Schwartz J, Ransom MR. Daily mortality and PM10 pollution in Utah Valley. Arch Environ Health. 1992 May-Jun;47(3):211–217. [PubMed]
  • Pope CA, 3rd, Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, Dockery DW, Evans JS, Speizer FE, Heath CW., Jr Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995 Mar;151(3 Pt 1):669–674. [PubMed]
  • Schwartz J. Air pollution and daily mortality: a review and meta analysis. Environ Res. 1994 Jan;64(1):36–52. [PubMed]
  • Ozkaynak H, Xue J, Spengler J, Wallace L, Pellizzari E, Jenkins P. Personal exposure to airborne particles and metals: results from the Particle TEAM study in Riverside, California. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1996 Jan-Mar;6(1):57–78. [PubMed]
  • Marple VA, Rubow KL, Turner W, Spengler JD. Low flow rate sharp cut impactors for indoor air sampling: design and calibration. JAPCA. 1987 Nov;37(11):1303–1307. [PubMed]
  • Heitbrink WA, Baron PA. An approach to evaluating and correcting aerodynamic particle sizer measurements for phantom particle count creation. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1992 Jul;53(7):427–431. [PubMed]
  • Suh HH, Nishioka Y, Allen GA, Koutrakis P, Burton RM. The metropolitan acid aerosol characterization study: results from the summer 1994 Washington, D.C. field study. Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Aug;105(8):826–834. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Milford JB, Davidson CI. The sizes of particulate sulfate and nitrate in the atmosphere--a review. JAPCA. 1987 Feb;37(2):125–134. [PubMed]
  • Clayton CA, Perritt RL, Pellizzari ED, Thomas KW, Whitmore RW, Wallace LA, Ozkaynak H, Spengler JD. Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (PTEAM) study: distributions of aerosol and elemental concentrations in personal, indoor, and outdoor air samples in a southern California community. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1993 Apr-Jun;3(2):227–250. [PubMed]
  • Wallace L. Indoor particles: a review. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 1996 Feb;46(2):98–126. [PubMed]
  • Suh HH, Koutrakis P, Spengler JD. The relationship between airborne acidity and ammonia in indoor environments. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1994 Jan-Mar;4(1):1–22. [PubMed]

Articles from Environmental Health Perspectives are provided here courtesy of National Institute of Environmental Health Science