Patients with falciparum malaria were studied in Thailand, an area of known chloroquine resistance. The patients were unselected and some had severe malaria, and they were randomly assigned to one of two sequential regimes. A short course of quinine (average 4 doses, equivalent to 2 g base) followed by a single dose of pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (Fansidar) cured 92% of patients (36 out of 39), while a short course of quinine followed by a single 1-5-dose of mefloquine cured all of the 35 patients who could be followed up. Gastrointestinal side effects were minimal if at least 12 hours elapsed between the last dose of quinine and the mefloquine. Sequential quinine and mefloquine is the most effective treatment for patients with chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria, including those with severe or complicated disease. Mefloquine, however, is not commercially available, and the similar regimen using Fansidar is almost as effective.