The Vietnam Era Twin Registry consists of 4,774 male-male twin pairs born between 1939 and 1957 with both brothers having served in the United States military during the Vietnam War. The registry was originally developed to provide the best control group for Vietnam-exposed servicemen to study the long-term health consequences of service in Vietnam. Recognizing the potential value of the registry for other areas of medical research, the Department of Veterans Affairs in 1988 opened the registry for use by both VA and non-VA investigators. The existence of centralized VA data bases for deaths and VA hospitalizations will strengthen future followup of the twins. This article describes the characteristics of the registry population and the process for accessing the registry.