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Castration of horses is considered a common and routine surgical procedure, but the potential for complications is high. By far the most serious of these is eventration. The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term survival of horses undergoing surgical treatment of indirect (1) inguinal eventration of the small intestine following castration, and to identify prognostic indicators for survival. The case records of 18 horses undergoing surgical treatment of postcastration eventration (PCE) between 1985 and 1995 were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained by telephone interviews 2 to 13 y postoperatively. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was fitted to determine which clinical features were of significant influence to survival. Clinical features with a significant negative influence on survival were an inguinal surgical approach for correction, an increased length of prolapsed bowel, and performance of bowel resection and anastomosis. Significant postoperative complications developed in 89% of cases; 44% of cases in the "inguinal" surgical approach group developed peritonitis, compared with 10% in the "midline" approach group. Of all horses in this study, 72% were discharged from the hospital; however, only 40% of horses in the inguinal approach group were discharged. The long term survival rate (> 1 y) for all horses in this study was 44%, with a median survival time of 3-1/2 mo.