To study the hypothesis of the mutant selection window (MSW) in a pharmacodynamic context, the susceptibility of a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exposed to moxifloxacin (MOX), gatifloxacin (GAT), levofloxacin (LEV), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) was tested daily by using an in vitro dynamic model that simulates human pharmacokinetics. A series of monoexponential pharmacokinetic profiles that mimic once-daily administration of MOX (half-life, 12 h), GAT (half-life, 7 h), and LEV (half-life, 6.8 h) and twice-daily administration of CIP (half-life, 4 h) provided peak concentrations (Cmax) that either equaled the MIC, fell between the MIC and the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) (i.e., within or “inside” the MSW), or exceeded the MPC. The respective ratios of the area under the curve (AUC) over a 24-h dosing interval (AUC24) to the MIC varied from 13 to 244 h, and the starting inoculum was 108 CFU/ml (6 × 109 CFU per 60-ml central compartment). With all four quinolones, the greatest increases in MIC were observed at those AUC24/MIC values (from 24 to 62 h) that corresponded to quinolone concentrations within the MSW over most of the dosing interval (>20%). Less-pronounced increases in MIC were associated with the smallest simulated AUC24/MIC values (15 to 16 h) of GAT and CIP, whose Cmax exceeded the MICs. No such increases were observed with the smallest AUC24/MIC values (13 to 17 h) of MOX and LEV, whose Cmax were close to the MICs. Also, less pronounced but significant increases in MIC occurred at AUC24/MIC values (107 to 123 h) that correspond to quinolone concentrations partly overlapping the MIC-to-MPC range. With all four drugs, no change in MIC was seen at the highest AUC24/MIC values (201 to 244 h), where quinolone concentrations exceeded the MPC over most of the dosing interval. These “protective” AUC24/MIC ratios correspond to 66% of the usual clinical dose of MOX (400 mg), 190% of a 400-mg dose of GAT, 220% of a 500-mg dose of LEV, and 420% of two 500-mg doses of CIP. Thus, MOX may protect against resistance development at subtherapeutic doses, whereas GAT, LEV, and CIP provide similar effects only at doses that exceed their usual clinical doses. These data support the concept that resistant mutants are selectively enriched when antibiotic concentrations fall inside the MSW and suggest that in vitro dynamic models can be used to predict the relative abilities of quinolones to prevent mutant selection.