The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP),administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through grants to states, tribes, and territories, has successfully provided breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income women since 1990. On October 24, 2000, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment Act (BCCPTA) authorizing states, if they chose, to provide Medicaid coverage for treatment services for women screened under theNBCCEDP. Under BCCPTA, uninsured women younger than age 65 who are screened through the NBCCEDP and found to have breast or cervical cancer (or precancerous conditions) may gain access to Medicaid services for and during their cancer treatment. Implementation of the BCCPTA requires collaboration and coordination among many government agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, state Medicaid directors, and directors of state and tribal grant programs. This article describes the implementation of the program and demonstrates to policy makers that coordinating resources among government agencies can facilitate the rapid adoption of public health programs as pathways for specific populations to gain access to publicly funded health insurance coverage.