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This article summarizes key findings from evaluation and research studies that have received financial support from the HIV/AIDS Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration or from Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act grantees. These studies suggest that the CARE Act has improved but not equalized service accessibility, quality, and outcomes for different populations living with HIV disease. Evaluations of access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) found that uninsured patients, women, people of color, and injection drug users waited much longer than others to receive the new therapies. These disparities were not uniform across study sites, suggesting that clinic characteristics and geographic location have a major influence on prescribing patterns. Once patients gained access to HAART, health insurance status made little difference in clinical outcomes.