1. Volk RJ, Steinbauer JR, Cantor SB, Holzer CE., III The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) as a screen for at-risk drinking in primary care patients of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. Addiction. 1997;92:197–206. [PubMed] 2. Piccinelli M, Tessari E, Bortolomasi M, et al. Efficacy of the alcohol use disorders identification test as a screening tool for hazardous alcohol intake and related disorders in primary care: a validity study. BMJ. 1997;314:420–24. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 3. Adams WL, Barry KL, Fleming MF. Screening for problem drinking in older primary care patients. JAMA. 1996;276:1964–67. [PubMed] 4. Weisner C, Schmidt L. Gender disparities in treatment for alcohol problems. JAMA. 1992;268:1872–76. [PubMed] 5. Amodei N, Williams JF, Seale JP, Alvarado ML. Gender differences in medical presentation and detection of patients with a history of alcohol abuse or dependence. J Addict Dis. 1996;15:19–31. [PubMed] 6. Buchsbaum DG, Buchanan RG, Poses RM, Schnoll SH, Lawton MJ. Physician detection of drinking problems in patients attending a general medicine practice. J Gen Intern Med. 1992;7:517–21. [PubMed] 7. Fiellin D, Reid MC, O'Connor P. Screening for alcohol problems in primary care: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1977–89. [PubMed] 8. Fleming MF, Barry KL, Manwell LB, Johnson K, London R. Brief physician advice for problem alcohol drinkers: a randomized controlled trial in community-based primary care practices. JAMA. 1997;277:1039–45. [PubMed] 9. Moore RD, Bone LR, Geller G, Mamon JA, Stokes EJ, Levine DM. Prevalence, detection and treatment of alcoholism in hospitalized patients. JAMA. 1989;261:403–7. [PubMed] 10. Blumenthal SJ. Women and substance abuse: a new national focus. NIDA Conference on Substance Abuse in Women 1997. Available at: http://www.nida.nih.gov. Accessed February 1, 2000. 11. Fuchs CS, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality among women. N Engl J Med. 1995;332:1245–50. [PubMed]
12. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Eighth Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health. Washington DC: Department of Health and Human Services; 1993.
13. Kessler RC, Crum RM, Warner LA, Nelson CB, Schulenberg J, Anthony JC. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994;51:8–19. [PubMed]
14. NIAAA. Alcohol Consumption and Related Problems: Alcohol and Health Monograph. Rockville, Md: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1982. pp. 3–52.
15. Hilton ME. Regional diversity in U.S. drinking practices. In: Clark WB, Hilton ME, editors. Alcohol in America: Drinking Practices and Problems. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press; 1991. pp. 256–79.
16. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US) National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Population Estimates, 1996. Washington: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies; 1997. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 97–3137.
17. Fillmore KM. When Angels Fall…: Women's Drinking as Cultural Preoccupation and as a Reality. In: Wilsnack SC, Beckman LJ, editors. Alcohol Problems in Women: Antescedents, Consequences, and Intervention. New York: Guilford Press; 1984. pp. 7–36.
18. Grant BF, Harford TC, Chou P, et al. Prevalence of DSM-III-R alcohol abuse and dependence: United States, 1988. Alcohol Health Res World. 1991;15:91–6.
19. Robins LN, Helzer JE, Przybeck TR, Regier DA. Alcohol Disorders in the Community: A Report from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area. In: Rose RM, Barrett J, editors. Alcoholism: Origins and Outcomes. New York: Raven Press; 1988. pp. 15–29.
20. Wilsnack SC, Klassen AD, Schur BE, Wilsnack RW. Predicting onset and chronicity of women's problem drinking: a five-year longitudinal analysis. Am J Public Health. 1991;81:305–18. [PubMed] 21. Buchsbaum DG, Buchanan RG, Centor RM, Scholl SH, Lawton MJ. Screening for alcohol abuse using CAGE scores and likelihood ratios. Ann Intern Med. 1991;115:774–77. [PubMed] 22. Fleming MF, Barry KL. A three-sample test of a masked alcohol screening questionnaire. Alcohol Alcohol. 1991;26:81–91. [PubMed] 23. Halliday A, Bush B, Cleary P, Aronson M, Delbanco T. Alcohol abuse in women seeking gynecologic care. Obstet Gynecol. 1986;68:322–26. [PubMed] 24. Tobin MD, Schmidt PJ, Rubinow DR. Reported alcohol use in women with premenstrual syndrome. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:1503–04. [PubMed] 25. Grodstein F, Goldman MB, Cramer DW. Infertility in women and moderate alcohol abuse. Am J Public Health. 1994;84:1429–32. [PubMed] 26. Walker E, Katon W, Harrop-Griffiths J, Holm L, Russo J, Hickok LR. Relationship of chronic pelvic pain to psychiatric diagnoses and childhood sexual abuse. Am J Psychiatry. 1988;145:75–80. [PubMed] 27. Perper MM, Breitkopf LJ, Breitstein R, Cody RP, Manowitz P. MAST scores, alcohol consumption, and gynecological symptoms in endometriosis patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993;17:272–78. [PubMed] 28. Holden C. Probing the complex genetics of alcoholism. Science. 1991;251:163–4. [PubMed]
29. Russell M, Henderson C, Blume SB. Children of Alcoholics: A Review of the Literature. New York: Children of Alcoholics Foundation; 1985.
30. Schuckit MA, Li TK, Cloninger CR, Deitrich RA. Genetics of alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1985;9:475–92. [PubMed] 31. Cadoret RJ, Troughton E, O'Gorman TW, Heywood E. An adoption study of genetic and environmental factors in drug abuse. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1986;43:1131–36. [PubMed]
32. Wilsnack SC. Patterns and trends in women's drinking: Recent findings and some implications for prevention. Paper presented to the Working Group for Prevention Research on Women and Alcohol, Prevention Research Branch, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda. Maryland, September 13–14, 1993.
33. Pickens RW, Svikis DS, McGue M, Lykken DT, Heston LL, Clayton PJ. Heterogeneity in the inheritance of alcoholism: a study of male and female twins. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991;48:19–28. [PubMed] 34. Cloninger CR. Neurogenetic adaptive mechanism in alcoholism. Science. 1987;236:410–16. [PubMed] 35. Bohman M, Sigvardsson S, Cloninger CR. Maternal inheritance of alcohol abuse: cross-fostering analysis of adopted women. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1981;38:965–69. [PubMed] 36. Sigvardsson S, Bohman M, Cloninger CR. Replication of the Stockholm Adoption Study of Alcoholism. Confirmatory cross-fostering analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53:681–87. [PubMed] 37. Kendler KS, Heath AC, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Eaves LJ. A population-based twin study of alcoholism in women. JAMA. 1992;268:1877–82. [PubMed] 38. Hill SY, Smith TR. Evidence for genetic mediation of alcoholism in women. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1991;3:159–74. [PubMed] 39. Frezza M, di Padova C, Pozzato G, Terpin M, Baraona E, Lieber CS. High blood alcohol levels in women: the role of decreased gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity and first-pass metabolism. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:95–9. [PubMed] 40. Hahn HKJ, Burch RE. Impaired ethanol metabolism with advancing age. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1983;7:299–301. [PubMed]
41. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The Physician's Guide to Helping Patients With Alcohol Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995. NIH publication no 95–3769.
42. Frank JB, Weihs K, Minerva E, Lieberman DZ. Women's mental health in primary care. Med Clin North Am. 1998;82:359–89. [PubMed] 43. Thom B. Sex differences in help-seeking for alcohol problems, 1: barriers to help-seeking. Br J Addict. 1986;81:777–88. [PubMed] 44. Svarstad BL, Cleary PD, Mechanic D, Robers PA. Gender differences in the acquisition of prescribed drugs. Med Care. 1987;25:1089–98. [PubMed] 45. Parran T., Jr Prescription drug abuse: a question of balance. Med Clin N Am. 1997;81:967–78. [PubMed] 46. Wilk AI, Jensen NM, Havighurst TC. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials addressing brief interventions in heavy alcohol drinkers. J Gen Intern Med. 1997;12:274–83. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
47. American Psychiatric Association Task Force on DSM-IV. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994. pp. 175–272.
48. Schuckit MA, Hesselbrock V, Tipp J. A comparison of DSM-III, DSM-IV and ICD-10 substance use disorders diagnoses in 1992 men and women subjects in the COGA study. Addiction. 1994;89:1629–38. [PubMed] 49. Reid MC, Fiellin DA, O'Connor PG. Hazardous and harmful drinking in primary care. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:1681–89. [PubMed]
50. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services: Report of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. 2nd ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams and Wilkins; 1996. pp. 567–82.
51. Bradley KA, Boyd-Wickizer J, Powell SH, Burman ML. Alcohol screening questionnaires in women: a critical review. JAMA. 1998;280:166–71. [PubMed]
52. Williams AB, O'Connor PG. Substance abuse issues. In: Kelly P, Holman S, Rothenberg R, Holzemer SP, editors. Primary Care of Women and Children with HIV Infection: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Boston, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 1995. pp. 217–38.
53. Lex BW. Gender differences and substance abuse. Adv Subst Abuse. 1991;4:225–96.
54. Fillmore KM. The social victims of drinking. Br J Addict. 1985;80:307–14. [PubMed] 55. Beckman LJ, Amaro H. Personal and social differences faced by women and men entering alcoholism treatment. J Stud Alcohol. 1986;47:135–46. [PubMed] 56. Blume SB. Women and alcohol. A review. JAMA. 1986;256:1467–70. [PubMed] 57. Gomberg ESL. Alcoholic women in treatment: the question of stigma and age. Alcohol Alcohol. 1988;23:507–14. [PubMed] 58. Miller WR, Cervantes EA. Gender and patterns of alcohol problems: pretreatment responses of women and men to the Comprehensive Drinker Profile. J Clin Psychol. 1997;53:263–77. [PubMed] 59. Wechsler H, Dowdall GW, Davenport A, Rimm EB. A gender-specific measure of binge drinking among college students. Am J Public Health. 1995;85:982–85. [PubMed] 60. Ames GM, Rebhun LA. Women, alcohol and work: interactions of gender, ethnicity and occupational culture. Soc Sci Med. 1996;43:1649–63. [PubMed] 61. Richman JA, Rospenda KM. Gender roles and alcohol abuse. Costs of noncaring for future physicians. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1992;180:619–26. [PubMed] 62. Piazza NJ, Vrbka JL, Yeager RD. Telescoping of alcoholism in women alcoholics. Int J Addict. 1989;24:19–28. [PubMed] 63. Randall CL, Roberts JS, Del Boca FK, Carroll KM, Connors GJ, Mattson ME. Telescoping of landmark events associated with drinking: a gender comparison. J Stud Alcohol. 1999;60:252–60. [PubMed] 64. Parrish KM, Dufour MC, Stinson FS, Harford TC. Average daily alcohol consumption during adult life among decedents with and without cirrhosis: the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey. J Stud Alcohol. 1993;54:450–56. [PubMed] 65. Mezey E, Oesterling JE, Potter JJ. Influence of male hormones on ethanol elimination in man. Hepatology. 1988;8:742–4. [PubMed] 66. Becker U, Deis A, Sorensen TI, et al. Prediction of risk of liver disease by alcohol intake, sex and age: a prospective population study. Hepatology. 1996;23:1025–9. [PubMed] 67. Mishra L, Sharma S, Potter JJ, Mezey E. More rapid elimination of alcohol in women as compared to their male siblings. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1989;13:752–54. [PubMed] 68. Hanna E, DuFour MC, Elliot S, Stinson F, Harford TC. Dying to be equal: women, alcohol and cardiovascular disease. Br J Addict. 1992;87:1593–97. [PubMed] 69. Lindberg S, Agren G. Mortality among male and female hospitalized alcoholics in Stockholm 1962–1983. Br J Addict. 1988;83:1193–200. [PubMed] 70. Smith EM, Cloninger CR, Bradford S. Predictors of mortality in alcoholic women: a prospective follow-up study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1983;7:237–43. [PubMed] 71. Holman CDJ, English DR, Milne E, Winter MG. Meta-analysis of alcohol and all-cause mortality: a validation of NHMRC recommendations. Med J Aust. 1996;164:141–5. [PubMed] 72. Klatsky AL, Armstrong MA, Friedman GD. Alcohol and mortality. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117:646–54. [PubMed] 73. Poikolainen K. Alcohol and mortality: a review. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995;48:455–65. [PubMed] 74. Serdula MK, Koong SL, Williamson DF, et al. Alcohol intake and subsequent mortality: findings from the NHANES I follow-up study. J Stud Alcohol. 1995;56:233–9. [PubMed] 75. Garg R, Wagener DK, Madans JH. Alcohol consumption and risk of ischemic heart disease in women. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:1211–6. [PubMed] 76. Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH. A prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of coronary disease and stroke in women. N Engl J Med. 1988;319:267–73. [PubMed] 77. Mukamal KJ, Maclure M, Muller JE, Sherwood JB, Mittleman MA. Prior alcohol consumption and mortality following acute myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2001;285:1965–70. [PubMed] 78. Urbano-Marquez A, Estruch R, Fernandez-Sola J, Nicolas JM, Pare JC, Rubin E. The greater risk of alcoholic cardiomyopathy and myopathy in women compared to men. JAMA. 1995;274:149–54. [PubMed] 79. Abramson JL, Williams SA, Krumholz HM, Vaccarino V. Moderate alcohol consumption and risk of heart failure among older persons. JAMA. 2001;285:1971–77. [PubMed] 80. Longnecker MP. Alcoholic beverage consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis and review. Cancer Causes Control. 1994;5:73–82. [PubMed] 81. Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. Moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1987;316:1174–80. [PubMed] 82. Schatzkin A, Jones DY, Hoover RN, et al. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer in the Epidemiologic Follow-up Study of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. N Engl J Med. 1987;316:1169–73. [PubMed] 83. Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS, et al. Alcohol and breast cancer in women. JAMA. 1998;279:535–40. [PubMed] 84. Harris RE, Wynder EL. Breast cancer and alcohol consumption: a study in weak associations. JAMA. 1988;259:2867–71. [PubMed] 85. Ellison RC, Zhang Y, McLennan CE, Rothman KJ. Exploring the relation of alcohol consumption to risk of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154:740–47. [PubMed] 86. Tonnesen H, Moller H, Anderson JR, Jensen E, Juel K. Cancer mortality in alcohol abusers. Br J Cancer. 1994;69:327–32. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 87. Kuper H, Ye W, Weiderpass E, et al. Alcohol and breast cancer risk: the alcoholism paradox. Br J Cancer. 2000;83:949–51. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 88. Orwoll ES, Klein RF. Osteoporosis in men. Endocr Rev. 1995;16:87–116. [PubMed] 89. Odvina CV, Safi I, Wojtowicz CH, et al. Effect of heavy alcohol intake in the absences of liver disease on bone mass in black and white men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995;80:2499–503. [PubMed] 90. Kelepouris N, Harper KD, Gannon F, Kaplan FS, Haddad JG. Severe osteoporosis in men. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123:452–60. [PubMed] 91. Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, Kannel WB, Kiel DP. Alcohol intake and bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:485–92. [PubMed] 92. Orwoll ES, Bauer DC, Vogt TM, Fox KM. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Axial bone mass in older women. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124:187–96. [PubMed] 93. Holbrook TL, Barrett-Connor E. A prospective study of alcohol consumption and bone mineral density. BMJ. 1993;306:1506–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 94. Stevenson JC, Lees B, Devenport M, Cust MP, Ganger KF. Determinants of bone density in normal women: risk factors for osteoporosis. BMJ. 1989;298:924–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 95. Hernandez-Avila M, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Willett WC. Caffeine, moderate alcohol intake, and risk of fractures of the hip and forearm in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:157–63. [PubMed] 96. Laitinen K, Karkkainen M, Lalla M, et al. Is alcohol an osteoporosis-inducing agent for young and middle-aged women? Metabolism. 1993;42:875–81. [PubMed] 97. La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S, Parazzini F, Gentile A, Fasoli M. Alcohol and epithelial ovarian cancer. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45:1025–30. [PubMed] 98. Sigvardsson S, Hardell L, Przybeck TR, Cloninger R. Increased cancer risk among Swedish female alcoholics. Epidemiology. 1996;7:140–3. [PubMed] 99. Gwinn ML, Webster LA, Lee NC, Layde PM, Rubin GL. The Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study Group. Alcohol consumption and ovarian cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol. 1986;123:759–66. [PubMed] 100. Lagiou P, Ye W, Wedren S, et al. Incidence of ovarian cancer among alcoholic women: a cohort study in Sweden. Int J Cancer. 2001;91:264–6. [PubMed] 101. Wilsnack SC, Klassen AD, Wilsnack RW. Drinking and reproductive dysfunction among women in a 1981 national survey. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1984;8:451–8. [PubMed] 102. Grodstein F, Goldman MB, Cramer DW. Infertility in women and moderate alcohol use. Am J Public Health. 1994;84:1429–32. [PubMed] 103. Bahamondes L, Bueno JG, Hardy E, Vera S, Pimentel E, Ramos M. Identification of main risk factors for tubal infertility. Fertil Steril. 1994;61:478–82. [PubMed] 104. Perper MM, Breitkopf LJ, Breitstein R, Cody RP, Manowitz P. MAST scores, alcohol consumption, and gynecological symptoms in endometriosis patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993;17:272–8. [PubMed] 105. Harlap S, Shiono PH. Alcohol, smoking, and incidence of spontaneous abortions in the first and second trimester. Lancet. 1980;2:173–6. [PubMed] 106. Niaura RS, Nathan PE, Frankenstein W, Shapiro AP, Brick J. Gender differences in acute psychomotor, cognitive and pharmacokinetic response to alcohol. Addict Behav. 1987;12:345–56. [PubMed] 107. Acker C. Neuropsychological deficits in alcoholics: the relative contributions of gender and drinking history. Br J Addict. 1986;81:395–403. [PubMed] 108. Mann K, Batra A, Gunthner A, Schroth G. Do women develop alcoholic brain damage more readily than men. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1992;16:1052–56. [PubMed] 109. Hommer D, Momenan R, Rawlings R, et al. Decreased corpus callosum size among alcoholic women. Arch Neurol. 1996;53:359–63. [PubMed] 110. Ammendola A, Gemini D, Iannaccone S, et al. Gender and peripheral neuropathy in chronic alcoholism: a clinical-electroneurographic study. Alcohol Alcohol. 2000;35:368–71. [PubMed] 111. Hesselbrock MN, Meyer RC, Keener JJ. Psychopathology in hospitalized alcoholics. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1985;42:1050–55. [PubMed] 112. Cornelius JR, Jarrett PJ, Thase ME, et al. Gender effects on the clinical presentation of alcoholics at a psychiatric hospital. Compr Psychiatry. 1995;36:435–40. [PubMed] 113. Helzer JE, Rokins LN, McEvoy L. Post-traumatic stress disorder in the general population: findings of the epidemiologic catchment area survey. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:1630–34. [PubMed] 114. Kessler RC, Crum RM, Warner LA, Nelson CB, Schulenberg J, Anthony JC. Lifetime co-occurrence of DSM-III-R alcohol abuse and dependence with other psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997;54:313–21. [PubMed] 115. Schuckit MA, Tipp JE, Bergman M, Reich W, Hesselbrock VM, Smith TL. Comparison of induced and independent major depressive disorders in 2,945 alcoholics. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154:948–56. [PubMed] 116. Kessler RC, Nelson CB, McGonagle KA, Edlund MJ, Frank RG, Leaf PJ. The epidemiology of co-occurring addictive and mental disorders: implications for prevention and service utilization. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1996;66:17–31. [PubMed] 117. Dunne FJ, Galatapoulus C, Schipperheijn JM. Gender differences in psychiatric morbidity among alcohol misusers. Compr Psychiatry. 1993;34:95–101. [PubMed]
118. Gomberg ESL. Suicide risk among women with alcohol problems. Addict Nurs Network. 1989;1:3–7.
119. Bulik CM. Drug and alcohol abuse by bulimic women and their families. Am J Psychiatry. 1987;144:1604–06. [PubMed] 120. Sinha R, O'Malley SS. Alcohol and eating disorders: implications for alcohol treatment and health services research. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000;24:1312–9. [PubMed] 121. Beary MD, Lacey JH, Merry J. Alcoholism and early disorder in women of fertile age. Br J Addict. 1986;81:685–89. [PubMed] 122. Kassett JA, Gershon ES, Maxwell ME, et al. Psychiatric disorders in the first-degree relatives of probands with bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 1989;146:1468–71. [PubMed] 123. Stein M, Cyr M. Women and substance abuse. Med Clin North Am. 1997;81:979–98. [PubMed] 124. Brisman J, Siegel M. Bulimia and alcoholism: two sides of the same coin. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1984;1:113–18. [PubMed] 125. Jones DA, Cheshire N, Moorhouse H. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia and alcoholism – association of eating disorder and alcohol. J Psychiatr Res. 1992;19:377–80. [PubMed] 126. Kyriacou DN, Anglin D, Taliaferro E, et al. Risk factors for injury to women from domestic violence against women. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:1892–8. [PubMed] 127. Miller BA, Downs WR, Testa M. Interrelationships between victimization experiences and women's alcohol use. J Stud Alcohol. 1993;11(suppl):109–17. [PubMed] 128. Kilpatrick DG, Acierno R, Resnick HS, Saunders BE, Best CL. A 2-year longitudinal analysis of the relationships between violent assault and substance abuse in women. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997;65:834–47. [PubMed] 129. Deykin EY, Buka SL. Prevalence and risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder among chemically dependent adolescents. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154:752–7. [PubMed] 130. Windle M, Windle RC, Scheidt DM, Miller GB. Physical and sexual abuse and associated mental disorders among alcoholic inpatients. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152:1322–8. [PubMed] 131. Breslau N, Davis GC, Peterson EL, Schultz L. Psychiatric sequelae of posttraumatic stress disorder in women. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997;54:81–7. [PubMed]
132. Institute of Medicine. Broadening the Base of Alcohol Treatment. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences Press; 1990. pp. 23–41.
133. Roman PM. Women and Alcohol Use: A Review of the Research Literature. Washington DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1988.
134. Reed BG. Developing women-sensitive drug dependence treatment services: why so difficult? J Psychoactive Drugs. 1987;19:151–64. [PubMed] 135. Under the Rug: Substance Abuse and the Mature Woman. The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University; June 1998. June 1998 Available at: http://www.casacolumbia.org. Accessed March 12, 2002. 136. Dahlgren L, Willander A. Are special treatment facilities for female alcoholics needed? A controlled 2-year follow-up study from a specialized female unit versus a mixed male/female treatment facility. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1989;13:499–504. [PubMed] 137. Copeland J, Hall W, Didcott P, Biggs V. A comparison of a specialist women's alcohol and other drug treatment service with two traditional mixed sex services: client characteristics and treatment outcome. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1993;32:81–92. [PubMed] 138. Snow D, Anderson C. Exploring the factors influencing relapse and recovery among drug and alcohol addicted women. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2000;38:8–19. [PubMed] 139. Cochran SD, Keenan C, Schober C, Mays VM. Estimates of alcohol use and clinical treatment needs among homosexually active men and women in the U.S. population. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68:1062–71. [PubMed] 140. Blow FC. Treatment of older women with alcohol problems: meeting the challenge for a special population. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000;24:1257–66. [PubMed] 141. Wysowski DK, Baum C. Outpatient use of prescription sedative-hypnotic drugs in the United States, 1970 through 1989. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1779–83. [PubMed] 142. Ray WA, Griffin MR, Schaffner W, Baugh DK, Melton LJ., III Psychotropic drug use and the risk of hip fracture. N Engl J Med. 1987;316:363–9. [PubMed] 143. Mosher WD, Bachrach CA. Understanding US fertility: continuity and change in the National Survey of Family Growth, 1988–1995. Fam Plann Perspect. 1996;28:4–12. [PubMed] 144. Abel EL. An update on incidence of FAS: FAS is not an equal opportunity birth defect. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1995;17:437–43. [PubMed]