1. Adams K, Corrigan JM, editors. Institute of Medicine. Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality. Committee on Identifying Priority Areas for Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2003.
2. Carmona RH. Health literacy in America: the role of health care professionals. Prepared remarks given at the American Medical Association House of Delegates Meeting, Chicago, IL, June 14, 2003. Available at: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/news/speeches/ama061403.htm. Accessed February 19, 2004. 3. Ratzan SC, Parker RM. Introduction. In: Selden CR, Zorn M, Ratzan SC, Parker RM, editors. National Library of Medicine Current Bibliographies in Medicine: Health Literacy. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2000. Vol. NLM, Pub. no. CBM 2000–1. 2000. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/cbm/hliteracy.html. Accessed January 15, 2004. 4. Nielsen-Bohlman LT, Panzer AM, Hamlin B, Kindig DA, editors. Institute of Medicine. Health literacy: a prescription to end confusion. Committee on Health Literacy, Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; April 2004. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10883.html/. Accessed April 19, 2004. 5. Weiss BD, Blanchard JS, McGee DL, et al. Illiteracy among Medicaid recipients and its relationship to health care costs. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 1994;5:99–111. [PubMed]
6. Rudd RE, Moeykens BA, Colton TC. Health and Literacy: A review of medical and public health literature. In: Comings J, Garners B, Smith C, editors. Health and Literacy. New York, NY: Jossey-Bass; 1999.
7. Kirsch I, Jungeblut A, Jenkins L, Kolstad A. Adult Literacy in America: A First Look at the Findings of the National Adult Literacy Survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education; 1993.
8. Sum A, Kirsch IS, Taggart R. The Twin Challenges of Mediocrity and Inequality: Literacy in the U.S. from an International Perspective. Policy Information Report. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service; 2002.
10. Ahluwalia JS, Richter K, Mayo MS, et al. African American smokers interested and eligible for a smoking cessation clinical trial: predictors of not returning for randomization. Ann Epidemiol. 2002;12:206–12. [PubMed] 11. Al-Tayyib AA, Rogers SM, Gribble JN, Villarroel M, Turner CF. Effect of low medical literacy on health survey measurements. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1478–81. [PubMed] 12. Arnold CL, Davis TC, Berkel HJ, Jackson RH, Nandy I, London S. Smoking status, reading level, and knowledge of tobacco effects among low-income pregnant women. Prev Med. 2001;32:313–20. [PubMed]
13. Arozullah AM, Lee S, Khan T, Kurup S. Low health literacy increases the risk of preventable hospital admission. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(suppl 1):221.
14. Bass PF, III, Wilson JF, Griffith CH, Barnett DR. Residents' ability to identify patients with poor literacy skills. Acad Med. 2002;77:1039–41. [PubMed]
15. Bass PF, Moore MA, Rising W, Ritchie CS. Differences in knowledge, self-efficacy, empowerment, and literacy among diabetic patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(suppl 1):168.
16. Beers BB, McDonald VJ, Quistberg DA, Ravenell KL, Asch DA, Shea JA. Disparities in health literacy between African American and non-African American primary care patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(suppl 1):169.
17. Bennett CL, Ferreira MR, Davis TC, et al. Relation between literacy, race, and stage of presentation among low-income patients with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:3101–4. [PubMed] 18. Bennett IM, Robbins S, Al Shamali N, Haecker T. Screening for low literacy among adult caregivers of pediatric patients. Fam Med. 2003;35:585–90. [PubMed]
19. Bryant B, Malone R, Ayscue D, DeWalt DA, Pignone MP. The effect of literacy and anticoagulation knowledge on the adequacy of warfarin anticoagulation for patients with atrial fibrillation. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(suppl 1):169.
20. Christensen RC, Grace GD. The prevalence of low literacy in an indigent psychiatric population. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:262–3. [PubMed] 21. Conlin KK, Schumann L. Literacy in the health care system: a study on open heart surgery patients. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2002;14:38–42. [PubMed] 22. Coyne CA, Xu R, Raich P, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of an easy-to-read informed consent statement for clinical trial participation: a study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:836–42. [PubMed] 23. Davis TC, Crouch MA, Long SW, et al. Rapid assessment of literacy levels of adult primary care patients. Fam Med. 1991;23:433–5. [PubMed] 24. Davis TC, Long SW, Jackson RH, et al. Rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine: a shortened screening instrument. Fam Med. 1993;25:391–5. [PubMed] 25. Davis TC, Mayeaux EJ, Fredrickson D, Bocchini JA, Jr, Jackson RH, Murphy PW. Reading ability of parents compared with reading level of pediatric patient education materials. Pediatrics. 1994;93:460–8. [PubMed] 26. Davis TC, Arnold C, Berkel HJ, Nandy I, Jackson RH, Glass J. Knowledge and attitude on screening mammography among low-literate, low-income women. Cancer. 1996;78:1912–20. [PubMed] 27. Davis TC, Fredrickson DD, Arnold C, Murphy PW, Herbst M, Bocchini JA. A polio immunization pamphlet with increased appeal and simplified language does not improve comprehension to an acceptable level. Patient Educ Couns. 1998;33:25–37. [PubMed] 28. Davis TC, Holcombe RF, Berkel HJ, Pramanik S, Divers SG. Informed consent for clinical trials: a comparative study of standard versus simplified forms. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:668–74. [PubMed] 29. Duffy MM, Snyder K. Can ED patients read your patient education materials? J Emerg Nurs. 1999;25:294–7. [PubMed] 30. Foltz A, Sullivan J. Reading level, learning presentation preference, and desire for information among cancer patients. J Cancer Educ. 1996;11:32–8. [PubMed] 31. Fortenberry JD, McFarlane MM, Hennessy M, et al. Relation of health literacy to gonorrhoea related care. Sex Transm Infect. 2001;77:206–11. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 32. Galloway G, Murphy P, Chesson AL, Martinez K. MDA and AAEM informational brochures: can patients read them? J Neurosci Nurs. 2003;35:171–4. [PubMed] 33. Gannon W, Hildebrandt E. A winning combination: women, literacy, and participation in health care. Health Care Women Int. 2002;23:754–60. [PubMed] 34. Hayes KS. Randomized trial of geragogy-based medication instruction in the emergency department. Nurs Res. 1998;47:211–8. [PubMed] 35. Hayes KS. Literacy for health information of adult patients and caregivers in a rural emergency department. Clin Excell Nurse Pract. 2000;4:35–40. [PubMed] 36. Hearth-Holmes M, Murphy PW, Davis TC, et al. Literacy in patients with a chronic disease: systemic lupus erythematosus and the reading level of patient education materials. J Rheumatol. 1997;24:2335–9. [PubMed] 37. Kaufman H, Skipper B, Small L, Terry T, McGrew M. Effect of literacy on breast-feeding outcomes. South Med J. 2001;94:293–6. [PubMed] 38. Kim SP, Knight SJ, Tomori C, et al. Health literacy and shared decision making for prostate cancer patients with low socioeconomic status. Cancer Invest. 2001;19:684–91. [PubMed] 39. Li BD, Brown WA, Ampil FL, Burton GV, Yu H, McDonald JC. Patient compliance is critical for equivalent clinical outcomes for breast cancer treated by breast-conservation therapy. Ann Surg. 2000;231:883–9. [PubMed] 40. Lindau ST, Tomori C, Lyons T, Langseth L, Bennett CL, Garcia P. The association of health literacy with cervical cancer prevention knowledge and health behaviors in a multiethnic cohort of women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186:938–43. [PubMed] 41. Mayeaux EJ, Jr, Davis TC, Jackson RH, et al. Literacy and self-reported educational levels in relation to Mini-mental State Examination scores. Fam Med. 1995;27:658–62. [PubMed] 42. McNeill EL, Estrada CA, Pinn T, Baro AL, Collins C, Byrd JC. Impact of health literacy on patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(suppl 1):182. [PubMed] 43. Moon RY, Cheng TL, Patel KM, Baumhaft K, Scheidt PC. Parental literacy level and understanding of medical information. Pediatrics. 1998;102:e25. [PubMed] 44. Murphy PW, Chesson AL, Berman SA, Arnold CL, Galloway G. Neurology patient education materials: do our educational aids fit our patients' needs? J Neurosci Nurs. 2001;33:99–104. [PubMed] 45. Raymond EG, Dalebout SM, Camp SI. Comprehension of a prototype over-the-counter label for an emergency contraceptive pill product. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100:342–9. [PubMed] 46. Rothman RL, Pignone MP, Malone R, Bryant B, DeWalt DA, Crigler B. A longitudinal analysis of the relationship between literacy and metabolic control in patients with diabetes. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(suppl 1):155. [PubMed] 47. Sharp LK, Zurawski JM, Roland PY, O'Toole C, Hines J. Health literacy, cervical cancer risk factors, and distress in low-income African-American women seeking colposcopy. Ethn Dis. 2002;12:541–6. [PubMed] 48. Williams MV, Baker DW, Honig EG, Lee TM, Nowlan A. Inadequate literacy is a barrier to asthma knowledge and self-care. Chest. 1998;114:1008–15. [PubMed] 49. Wilson FL, McLemore R. Patient literacy levels: a consideration when designing patient education programs. Rehabil Nurs. 1997;22:311–7. [PubMed] 50. Wilson FL, Racine E, Tekieli V, Williams B. Literacy, readability and cultural barriers: critical factors to consider when educating older African Americans about anticoagulation therapy. J Clin Nurs. 2003;12:275–82. [PubMed]
51. Artinian NT, Lange MP, Templin TN, Stallwood LG, Hermann CE. Functional health literacy in an urban primary care clinic. Internet J Adv Nurs Pract. 2001;5:11.
52. Benson JG, Forman WB. Comprehension of written health care information in an affluent geriatric retirement community: use of the test of functional health literacy. Gerontology. 2002;48:93–7. [PubMed] 53. Gazmararian JA, Baker DW, Williams MV, et al. Health literacy among Medicare enrollees in a managed care organization. JAMA. 1999;281:545–51. [PubMed] 54. Gazmararian JA, Parker RM, Baker DW. Reading skills and family planning knowledge and practices in a low-income managed-care population. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93:239–44. [PubMed] 55. Golin CE, Liu H, Hays RD, et al. A prospective study of predictors of adherence to combination antiretroviral medication. J Gen Intern Med. 2002;17:756–65. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 56. Kalichman SC, Ramachandran B, Catz S. Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapies in HIV patients of low health literacy. J Gen Intern Med. 1999;14:267–73. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 57. Kalichman SC, Rompa D. Functional health literacy is associated with health status and health-related knowledge in people living with HIV-AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000;25:337–44. [PubMed] 58. Kalichman SC, Benotsch E, Suarez T, Catz S, Miller J, Rompa D. Health literacy and health-related knowledge among persons living with HIV/AIDS. Am J Prev Med. 2000;18:325–31. [PubMed]
59. Lasater L, Davidson A, Mehler P. Patient literacy, adherence, and anticoagulation therapy outcomes: a preliminary report. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18:179.
60. Montalto NJ, Spiegler GE. Functional health literacy in adults in a rural community health center. W V Med J. 2001;97:111–4. [PubMed] 61. Nurss JR, El-Kebbi IM, Gallina DL, et al. Diabetes in urban African Americans: functional health literacy of municipal hospital outpatients with diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 1997;23:563–8. [PubMed]
62. Paasche-Orlow M, Brancati F, Rand C, Krishnan J. Education of patients with asthma and low literacy. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(Suppl 1):227.
63. Schillinger D, Grumbach K, Piette J, et al. Association of health literacy with diabetes outcomes. JAMA. 2002;288:475–82. [PubMed]
64. Shea JA, Guerra C, Weiner J, Aguirre A, Schaffer M, Asch DA. Health literacy and patient satisfaction. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(suppl 1):187.
65. Williams MV, Parker RM, Baker DW, et al. Inadequate functional health literacy among patients at two public hospitals. JAMA. 1995;274:1677–82. [PubMed] 66. Williams MV, Baker DW, Parker RM, Nurss JR. Relationship of functional health literacy to patients' knowledge of their chronic disease. A study of patients with hypertension and diabetes. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:166–72. [PubMed]
67. Win K, Machtinger E, Wang F, Chan LL, Rodriguez ME, Schillinger D. Understanding of warfarin therapy and stroke among ethnically diverse anticoagulation patients at a public hospital. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(suppl 1):278.
68. Coles GS, Roth L, Pollack IW. Literacy skills of long-term hospitalized mental patients. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1978;29:512–6. [PubMed] 69. Cooley ME, Moriarty H, Berger MS, Selm-Orr D, Coyle B, Short T. Patient literacy and the readability of written cancer educational materials. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1995;22:1345–51. [PubMed] 70. Currier GW, Sitzman R, Trenton A. Literacy in the psychiatric emergency room. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2001;189:56–8. [PubMed] 71. Davis TC, Jackson RH, George RB, et al. Reading ability in patients in substance misuse treatment centers. Int J Addict. 1993;28:571–82. [PubMed] 72. Fredrickson DD, Washington RL, Pham N, Jackson T, Wiltshire J, Jecha LD. Reading grade levels and health behaviors of parents at child clinics. Kans Med. 1995;96:127–9. [PubMed] 73. Hanson-Divers EC. Developing a medical achievement reading test to evaluate patient literacy skills: a preliminary study. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 1997;8:56–69. [PubMed] 74. Hartman TJ, McCarthy PR, Park RJ, Schuster E, Kushi LH. Results of a community-based low-literacy nutrition education program. J Community Health. 1997;22:325–41. [PubMed] 75. Jackson RH, Davis TC, Bairnsfather LE, George RB, Crouch MA, Gault H. Patient reading ability: an overlooked problem in health care. South Med J. 1991;84:1172–5. [PubMed] 76. Jackson RH, Davis TC, Murphy P, Bairnsfather LE, George RB. Reading deficiencies in older patients. Am J Med Sci. 1994;308:79–82. [PubMed] 77. Johnson ME, Fisher DG. Evaluating three reading tests for use with alcohol and other drug-abusing populations. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996;20:1125–9. [PubMed] 78. Johnson ME, Fisher DG, Davis DC, et al. Assessing reading level of drug users for HIV and AIDS prevention purposes. AIDS Educ Prev. 1996;8:323–34. [PubMed] 79. Jubelirer SJ, Linton JC, Magnetti SM. Reading versus comprehension: implications for patient education and consent in an outpatient oncology clinic. J Cancer Educ. 1994;9:26–9. [PubMed] 80. Kicklighter JR, Stein MA. Factors influencing diabetic clients' ability to read and comprehend printed diabetic diet material. Diabetes Educ. 1993;19:40–6. [PubMed] 81. Klinge V, Dorsey J. Correlates of the Woodcock-Johnson Reading Comprehension and Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test in a forensic psychiatric population. J Clin Psychol. 1993;49:593–8. [PubMed] 82. Larson I, Schumacher HR. Comparison of literacy level of patients in a VA arthritis center with the reading level required by educational materials. Arthritis Care Res. 1992;5:13–6. [PubMed] 83. Letz R, DiIorio CK, Shafer PO, Yeager KA, Henry TR, Schomer DL. A computer-based reading test for use as an index of premorbid general intellectual level in North American English-speaking adults. Neurotoxicology. 2003;24:503–12. [PubMed] 84. Manly JJ, Touradji P, Tang MX, Stern Y. Literacy and memory decline among ethnically diverse elders. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2003;25:680–90. [PubMed] 85. Meade CD, Byrd JC. Patient literacy and the readability of smoking education literature. Am J Public Health. 1989;79:204–6. [PubMed] 86. Meade CD, Byrd JC, Lee M. Improving patient comprehension of literature on smoking. Am J Public Health. 1989;79:1411–2. [PubMed] 87. Meade CD, McKinney WP, Barnas GP. Educating patients with limited literacy skills: the effectiveness of printed and videotaped materials about colon cancer. Am J Public Health. 1994;84:119–21. [PubMed] 88. Miller CK, O'Donnell DC, Searight HR, Barbarash RA. The Deaconess Informed Consent Comprehension Test: an assessment tool for clinical research subjects. Pharmacotherapy. 1996;16:872–8. [PubMed] 89. Spandorfer JM, Karras DJ, Hughes LA, Caputo C. Comprehension of discharge instructions by patients in an urban emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 1995;25:71–4. [PubMed] 90. TenHave TR, Van Horn B, Kumanyika S, Askov E, Matthews Y, Adams-Campbell LL. Literacy assessment in a cardiovascular nutrition education setting. Patient Educ Couns. 1997;31:139–50. [PubMed] 91. Weiss BD, Hart G, McGee DL, D'Estelle S. Health status of illiterate adults: relation between literacy and health status among persons with low literacy skills. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1992;53:257–64. [PubMed] 92. Wydra EW. The effectiveness of a self-care management interactive multimedia module. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2001;28:1399–407. [PubMed] 93. Zaslow MJ, Hair EC, Dion MR, Ahluwalia SK, Sargent J. Maternal depressive symptoms and low literacy as potential barriers to employment in a sample of families receiving welfare: are there two-generational implications? Women Health. 2001;32:211–51. [PubMed]
94. Spreen O, Strauss E. A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration, Norms, and Commentary. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1998.
96. Doak C, Doak L, Root J. Teaching Patients with Low Literacy Skills. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott Company; 1996.
99. Nurss JR, Parker RM, Williams MV, Baker DW. Test of Functional Literacy in Adults. 2nd ed. Snow Camp, NC: Peppercorn Books & Press; 2001.
103. Parker RM, Ratzan SC, Lurie N. Health literacy: a policy challenge for advancing high-quality health care. Health Aff (Millwood) 2003;22:147–53. [PubMed] 104. Weiss BD, Coyne C. Communicating with patients who cannot read. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:272–4. [PubMed] 105. Finan N. Visual literacy in images used for medical education and health promotion. J Audiov Media Med. 2002;25:16–23. [PubMed] 107. Lee SY, Arozullah AM, Cho YI. Health literacy, social support, and health: a research agenda. Soc Sci Med. 2004;58:1309–21. [PubMed]
108. Nurss JR, Baker DW, Davis TC, Parker RM, Williams MV. Difficulties in functional health literacy screening in Spanish-speaking adults. J Reading. 1995;38:632–7.
109. Friedman SM, Munoz B, Rubin GS, West SK, Bandeen-Roche K, Fried LP. Characteristics of discrepancies between self-reported visual function and measured reading speed Salisbury Eye Evaluation Project Team. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:858–64. [PubMed] 110. Meyer J, Xu G, Thornby J, Chowdhury M, Quach M. Longitudinal analysis of abnormal domains comprising mild cognitive impairment (MCI) during aging. J Neurol Sci. 2002;201:19–25. [PubMed] 111. Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, et al. The health care experience of patients with low literacy. Arch Fam Med. 1996;5:329–34. [PubMed] 112. Parikh NS, Parker RM, Nurss JR, Baker DW, Williams MV. Shame and health literacy: the unspoken connection. Patient Educ Couns. 1996;27:33–9. [PubMed] 113. National Assessments of Adult Literacy: National Center of Education Statistics, Institute for Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/naal/. Accessed February 19, 2004. 114. De Walt DA, Berkman ND, Sheridan S, Lohr KN, Pignone MP. Literacy and health outcomes: a systematic review of the Literature. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19:1228–39. [PMC free article] [PubMed]