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The effectiveness of three methods of operative cholangiography in outlining biliary anatomy was assessed in 60 patients undergoing routine cholecystectomy for gallbladder calculi. X-rays were scored according to bile duct visualization and an overall score calculated. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups. However, ductal opacification was inadequate in a majority of patients. It is suggested that closer cooperation with the radiologist and more emphasis on technique are required if cholangiography is used to identify unsuspected calculi.